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ES Topic 11

Earth Materials: Minerals, Rocks & Mineral Resources

Bioclastic sedimentary rocks any rock made or mostly made of/by living organisms; organic sedimentary rock
Chemical sedimentary rocks rock composed of interconnected crystals of one mineral that is formed by evaporation and/or precipitation dissolved minerals
Clastic sedimentary rocks rock that is largely made of solid sediments
Cleavage breaking of a mineral along weak zones that form smooth or semi smooth parallel surfaces
Contact metamorphism process in which older rocks come in contact with the magam of an intrusion or lava of an extrusion and the heat and mineral fluid of the liquid rock alter the older rock by recrystallization
Crystal shape the outward 3-D shape or geometric shape of a mineral specimen that reflects the internal atomic structure; also called crystal form
Crystal structure the pattern or arrangement of atoms that characterizes each mineral; also called atomic structure
Extrusive igneous rock rock formed by solidification of lava at or above Earth’s surface: also called volcanic igneous rock
Foliation texture of metamorphic rocks caused by layering on mineral crystals
Fossil any physical evidence of former life, either directly or indirectly
Fracture the way in which a mineral breaks producing and uneven surface; types of fracture- earthy, splintery, and curved(conchoidal)
Hardness the resistance a mineral offers to being scratched or dented; often measured on Moh's hardness scale
Igneous rock rock formed when natural, molten magma or lava cools and turns into a solid below, at, or above Earth’s surface
Inorganic not organic; not part of a life form or made by living or former life forms
Intrusive igneous rock a rock that forms by cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth’s solid surface; also called plutonic igneous rock
Luster the way a mineral looks or shines in reflected light
Magma liquid rock material below Earth’s solid surface
Metamorphic rocks a rock that forms from previously existing rock(igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks) due to heat, pressure, and/ or chemical fluids(not by weathering or melting)
Metamorphism the process by which heat, pressure, and/ or exposure to chemical fluids change previously existing rock
Mineral a naturally occurring, crystalline solid having a somewhat definite chemical composition and physical and chemical properties that vary in specified limits; has a unique crystal structure
Mineral crystal an individual grain of a mineral
Mineral resources Earth materials that people need, including minerals, rocks, and fossil fuels
Organic an Earth material that is composed of and/ or was formed by life forms
Precipitation of minerals when dissolved minerals come out of solution to form solids (rock salt is an example)
Regional metamorphism occurs in a large area when temperature and pressure alter rock structure, usually associated with mountain building or plate convergence
Rock cycle a model showing the interrelationships of different rock groups, the materials they form from, and the processes that produce them
Sedimentary rocks formed from cementation of settled sediments through cementation, precipitation of minerals, loss of water and compaction
streak color of the powder of a mineral which can help identify what mineral it is.
Texture the roughness or smoothness of a surface; also the size, shape and arrangement of crystals that make up a rock.
Created by: etucci