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Rice Genetics&Flower

Rice and Genetics and the Flower

QuestionAnswer
Dominant The allele that masks the expression of the recessive allele.
Gene The location of the chromosome that contains instructions for a particular trait.
Alleles Different forms of a gene.
Phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
Chromosomes Strands of genetic material inside the cell that contain information that codes for the traits of an organism.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Recessive The allele who's expression is masked by the dominant allele.
Homozygous When an organism has two identical alleles for a particular gene.
Heterozygous When an organism has two different alleles for the same gene.
Genetic Material Genetic information in an organism that is is passed down from generation to generation.
How are genetic traits inherited from one generation to the next? Through asexual and sexual reproduction.
What is an inherited trait? A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
What is an acquired trait? A characteristic that an organism gets (acquires) from its environment after it is born.
We sometimes see a mixture of inherited traits (from our genes) and acquired traits (from the environment ). What is an example in this situation? Possible examples: skin color (genes+amount of sunlight) Possibility of getting cancer (genes+ lifestyle choices like smoking)
What are the two types of reproduction? Asexual and sexual reproduction.
Asexual reproduction occurs when.... only one parent is responsible for a new organism.
In Asexual reproduction, is the offspring genetically identical to the parent? Yes.
In Asexual reproduction, from how many parents do the offspring inherit genes? One parent.
Give an example of an inherited trait. Examples: natural hair color, skin color (before getting tan), eye color (minus the colored contacts.
Give an example of an acquired trait. Examples: Tattoos, dying your hair, plastic surgery, cutting the tails of doberman pincers.
How many types of asexual reproduction are there? 2 types.
Name the kind(s) of asexual reproduction. -Budding -(Binary) Fission, also know as mitosis.
The process where a single celled organism replicates its DNA and splits resulting in two organisms is called? Fission.
During _______________ a part of a parent develops into a new organism and breaks off. Budding.
During sexual reproduction, a(n) ______ and a(n)_______ unite to form a(n)_________. This process is called_____________ line 1.) egg line 2.) sperm line 3.) offspring line 4.) fertilization
What are sex cells? An egg and a sperm
How many chromosomes are found in human sex cells? 23
How many chromosomes (genes) do all the cells in your body have except for your egg and sperm cells? 46
How many chromosomes do you get from your mom and dad each? 23
In ___________ reproduction, the product is not genetically identical to the parent. Sexual
What is variation? differences in a population
What is genetics? The study of heredity.
The passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring is known as ____ and we study this when we study genetics. Heredity
Who was the first person to study how traits were passed down from generation to generation? Gregor Mendel
GregorMendel was a monk who lived in a monastery true or false? True
When did Gregor Mendel start his work? 1851
What plants did Gregor Mendel work with? pea plants
Give 4 reasons why Mendel chose pea plants. -They have a 90 day reproduction cycle. -They are self pollinating. -They have two distinct forms of each trait. Big and Small no mediums. -They have a large number of offspring.
What interested Mendel about peas? Give 2 examples. -They had very odd traits (different sizes and shapes) -The pea plants were similar to their parents traits.
Trait A physical characteristic passed from parent to offspring.
True or False: Mendel could control which plants reproduced. True.
Do flowering plants have both male and female parts? Yes.
What parts of the flower are male? The stamen which consist of the anther and filament
What parts of the flower are female? The pistil or carpel which consist of the style ovary and ovule. The stigma is also female.
The part of the plant that develops into a seed after fertilization is called the________. ovule
The delivery of male sex cells to the female part of a plant is known as_________. pollination
Blue, green, hazel, and brown are major __________ of eye color found in humans. Variations
The pistil or carpel is the _______. egg
The stamen is the __________. sperm
What is a "cross" The pollen from one flower's stamen goes on the pistil of a second flower.
What did Mendel's experiments start with with? Pure breds
What is a purebred? A parent organism that always produces offspring with the same trait as the parent.(T T or t t)
Whats a genetic cross? "crossing" two parents that produce an offspring
Offspring=________ (latin for _____)= ____ generation line 1.) filial line 2.) son line 3.) F1
Genes are factors that control traits: true or false? True.
For EVERY trait how many alleles(letter/gene) do you get from each parent? One( one from an egg and one from a sperm)
What are the letters for gender? X and Y.
What are the alleles for a boy? XY
What are the alleles for a girl? XX
What allele do you always get from mom? X
What possible alleles do you always get from dad? X or Y
How many alleles (letters) make a genotype? 2 alleles(letters)
Is a dominant allele shown by a uppercase letter or a lower case letter? Uppercase
What are examples of a recessive inherited disorder? cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia
In order for you to have cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia do both parents need to have the disorder? No.
In order for you to have cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia both parents must have the gene for the disorder. True or False? True
"Hetero"=_________ __________ different alleles (letters) examples:= TT or tt
hybrid=________ heterozygous
"Homo"= ___________ the same TT or tt
Purebred=_______________ homozygous
Mendel was the first to accomplish ___________ ______________ by ___________ _______ genetic engineering selective breeding
Was Mendel's work discredited? Yes
What is selective breeding? The process of choosing (selecting) traits in wild or domesticated plants and animals. Examples: dog breeds, cat breeds, horse breeds, tomato breeds, and corn breeds.
What is Mendel is considered to be? The Father of Genetics.
The likelihood that a particular event will occur is known as _______________. Probability
True or False: In probability all events are independent of the events before them. True.
Did Mendel use punnet squares? No.
Who was the first scientist to recognize that the principles of probability can be used to predict the results of genetic crosses? Mendel
Whats a punnet square? A chart that shows the possible allele combinations from a genetic cross.
What always determines the sex of an offspring? The sperm cell from your dad.
What is co- dominance? When both alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. Both alleles are expressed example-chicken
Whats incomplete dominance? refers to a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele, and therefore results in a new phenotype. Example- skin color( basically a mix is all it is)
Are blood types in humans co dominant? Yes
Dominant traits and recessive traits in blood type ____________ Coexist
What are the alleles for blood type? I super script A, I super script B, and i.
MOVING ON TO RICE
What are some major traits in rice? - Color -Size
What are variations (different options) of rice traits? - Color- black, beige, white -Largest? Smallest?
Whats an important trait in rice? How much starch is in the rice grain.
Starch is a ______________. carbohydrate (CHO)
What does CHO contain? carbon(C) hydrogen(H) oxygen (O)
An odorless, tastless, complex sugar is known as____________. starch
What does starch provide when eaten? Energy.
How does rice get energy? From the sun during a process called photosynthesis.
Can you transform energy? Yes.
You can change or break energy: True or False. False
What happens during photosynthesis? Green plants take in water and carbon dioxide. Plants absorb sunlight which is energy needed to drive photosynthesis. Then plants release oxygen and waste to make carbohydrate called glucose (sugar).
What are the reactants in the photosynthesis chemical equation? Carbon dioxide and water.
What are the products in the photosynthesis chemical equation? Oxygen and glucose.
Word equation for photosynthesis? Water+carbon dioxide yields (makes) oxygen+ glucose
What do plants use glucose for? They use glucose for their life functions and growth.
Where is extra glucose stored in for a plant? In the seeds or roots.
What part of the plant do us humans often eat? Seed or roots
What do we do with CHO? We break it down and convert it into energy we can use.
Name 4 things rice provides us with. - starch( energy source) -minerals -vitamins -Amino Acids.
Amino Acids help make proteins that we need (incomplete protein which means you need to eat it with something else like beans to make a complete protein. No answer
What is Malnutrition? A condition that results when a person lacks the proper amount to proper type of food.
TIPS ON GRAPHING
TITLES: THE EFFECT OF THE IV ON THE DV(USE WHEN YOU ARE CONTROLLING IV AKA RUNNING EXPERIMENT)
USE UNITS AND NEED AVERAGE AS PART OF TITLE
PERFECT TITLE- THE EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF EXERCISE ON THE AVERAGE BREATHING RATE. (NUMBER OF BREATHS PER MINUTE)
Y VERSUS X (USE ONLY WHEN YOU ARE COLLECTING DATA, NOT RUNNING THE EXPERIMENT)
X AXIS- ALWAYS INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (TYPE OF EXERCISE)
Y AXIS- ALWAYS DEPENDENT VARIABLE (NUMBER OF BREATHS PER MINUTE)
ALWAYS GRAPH AVERAGES (ADD ALL THE DATA AND DIVIDE BY THE NUMBER OF DATA)
NEVER USE FIRST AND LAST LINE
SPACE BETWEEN EACH PIECE OF DATA
SAME COLOR UNLESS DATA HAS TWO DIFFERENT THINGS (attached ear lobe detached ear lobe)
DATA TABLE
TITLE FOR DATA TABLE-THE EFFECT OF THE IV WITH UNITS ON THE DV WITH UNITS
IV WITH UNITS ON RIGHT
DV WITH UNITS ON LEFT MIDDLE ABOVE TRIALS
Created by: varsha22