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NYS LE Topic 2

Homeostasis in Living Things

Antibiotics medicine you take to help fight off an infection (only works on bacteria, not viruses)
Antibodies chemicals made by your immune system to fight off disease
Catalyst enzymes that speed up chemical reactions
Negative feedback mechanism how an organism maintain homeostasis. A reaction can be stopped and made to go in the opposite direction.
Stimuli change in your environment that makes you respond. External or internal.
Vaccine shot you get to prevent infection that exposes your immune system to the pathogen so it can learn how to respond.
Pathogen foreign thing that infects you when you are sick (bacteria, virus, fungus)
Dynamic Equilibrium The small changes that maintain an organism’s constant internal environment helps maintain homeostasis
Homeostasis an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment even though there are small external changes occurring
Photosynthesis occurs in plants only, in the chloroplast (green). Carbon dioxide + water → glucose + Oxygen
AIDS Disease that results when HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infects the immune system
Allergy occurs when an immune system becomes overly sensitive to a normally harmless foreign substance.
Antigen proteins on a cell’s surface that the immune system recognizes as either being “self” or a foreign invader.
ATP a chemical form of stored energy; made by MIGHTY mitochondria during cell respiration
Bacteria single celled organisms with no nucleus that can cause infection
Biochemical processes a chemical process that occurs in a living thing
(Cellular) Respiration process that breaks down nutrients (glucose) to release the energy stored in them. Occurs at MIGHTY mitochondria
Chloroplast green organelle in plants where photosynthesis occurs
Disease a condition, other than injury, that prevents the body from working as it should
Enzyme protein that speeds up rate of chemical reactions in a living thing
Feedback Mechanism a cycle whose result either reinforces or reverses the actions taken by the system. Ex. blood glucose regulation
Fungi a kingdom of organisms that are multicellular heterotrophs that tend to grow on dead, decaying matter
Gas exchange obtaining Oxygen from the environment and releasing Carbon dioxide
Glucose a simple sugar (carbohydrate) that is the main energy source for most cells
Immune System a body’s primary defense against invading organisms
Insulin a hormone that lowers blood sugar levels
Microbe any microscopic organism
Mitochondria an organelle that contains enzymes needed to release energy from nutrients through cell respiration
Pancreas endocrine organ that releases the hormone insulin
Parasite organism that survives by living and feeding off of other living organisms
Pathogen general term for an organism that invades the body, causing disease
pH measures whether a substance is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Photosynthesis process in which organisms use energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide into simple sugars (glucose). Occurs in chloroplasts
Stimuli a change in the surroundings that causes an organism to respond in some way
Synthesis “making” A process where organisms can combine simple substances into more complex substances. Ex) protein ________ involves joining together amino acids
Vaccine a substance that contains a weakened or dead form of a pathogen that is designed to teach your immune system how to respond, should you ever be infected for real.
Virus a foreign invader that is actually not alive, and consists of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat.
Created by: etucci