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Sliding of myofilaments past myosin filaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
contraction of entire muscle in response to a stimulus muscle twitch
where muscles remain contracted without relaxing tetany
the time between application of stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction lag phase
raise the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
close the eyelids causes crows feet orbicularis oculi
pucker the lips orbiculars oris
flattens the cheeks/ kissing muscles buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
2 pterygoids, temporalis, masseter 4 pairs of mastication muscles
chewing mastication
change the shape of the tounge intrinsic tonuge muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sterncleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
skeletal muscle responds to a stimulus excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called epimysium
surrounds and separates muscles: outside the epimysium fascia
numerous visible bundles: surrounded by the perimysium fascicle
the fascicle is composed of single muscle cells called fibers
each fiber is surrounded by a sheath called endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with threadlike structures called myofibrils
thin myofliamnets actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin filaments
actin and myosin filaments form the basic structural unit of the muscle sarcomeres
extends from one Z line to another sarcomere
band on each side of the Z line I band
darker central region in each sarcomere A band
center of each sarcomere: light area of only myosin H zone
myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band M line
charge difference across the membrance resting membrane potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor nuerons
Each axon branch that connects to the muscle forms a synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are calle motor unit
formed by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane neuromuscular junction
The enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fiber in the synaptic cleft postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesiciles
secretion from vesicles that are a neurotransmitter acetycholine
enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
muscle fiver will not respond to stimulus until it reaches the threshold
threshold phenomenon is called all or none response
time of contraction contraction phase
time when muscle relaxes relaxation phase
The increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction. ATP adenosine triphosphate
muscles can store another high-energy molecule creatine phosphate
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen Aerobic respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced muscle fatique
the length of muscle does not change but the tension increases isometric
length of muscle changes but tension stays the same isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time. muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
Muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
descriptive names of muscles location, size, orientation, insertion, function
lateral neck muscle sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of back erector spinae
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
elevates ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
Created by: zcaitlyn



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