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Chapter 7

Upper limb

QuestionAnswer
Where is the highest point of the shoulder? Acromion
What is an extension of the scapular spine? acromion
8 carpal bones Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
What is Colle's fracture? fracture of the distal end of radius
What is the most fractured carpal bone? scaphoid
Carpal Tunnel passageway from the wrist to the hand, the carpal tunnel is made of tendons, ligaments, and bones
Carpal tunnel syndrome numbness and tingling in the hand and arm caused by a pinched nerve in the wrist
What nerve in carpal tunnel would be compressed? median nerve
What symptoms does carpal tunnel cause? weakness in the thenar eminence
What is the shoulder joint formed? articular capsule, coracohumeral ligament, glenohumeral ligament, glenoid labrum, four bursae
What are the actions of the shoulder joint? flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, circumduction
Does the shoulder joint have the most freedom of movement than any joint of the body? yes
What is the dislocated shoulder? dislocated joint, head of the humerus becomes displaced inferiorly
How is the wrist joint formed? distal end of the radius and lunate, scaphoid, and triquetrum
Which muscles make up the "rotator cuff"? supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
What muscle insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus? pectoralis major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor
What muscle origin or insert to the coracoid process of the scapula? pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, bicep brachii
What muscles attach to or run in the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus? pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres major
How is the brachial plexus formed? rami (roots)- 5 ventral rami (C5-T1) trunks- upper, middle, & lower, form division divisions- anterior & posterior serve front & back of limbs cords- lateral, medial, posterior fiber bundles
the 3 cords and nerves lateral cord: musculocutaneous & part of median nerves medial cord: part of median nerve & ulnar posterior cord: axillary and radial
What nerve supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles? axillary
What nerve supplies most of hand muscles? ulnar
What nerve supplies latissimus dorsi? thoracodorsal
What nerve supplies Biceps brachii and brachialis? musculocutaneous
What is the condition called Winged scapula? paralysis of serratus anterior
What nerve is injured in winged scapula? long thoracic nerve
What muscle is paralyzed in winged scapula? anterior serratus
Which nerve injury would lead to wrist drop? radial
What muscles does the axillary nerve supply? deltoid and teres minor
What is the consequence with the axillary nerve injury? paralysis to the muscle innervated by it, deltoid muscle, result in a reduction in shoulder abduction
Axillary nerve Distribution: deltoid, teres minor
Axillary nerve injury surgical neck of humerus fracture causes paralysis to the muscle innervated by it
Musculocutaneous nerve Distribution: flexors- coracobrachialis, bicep brachii, & brachialis
Radial nerve Distribution: essentially all extensor muscles also, brachioradialis
Median Nerve Distribution: flexors of forearm EXCEPT flexor carpi ulnaris & ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus
Median nerve injury median nerve palsy- numbness, tingling, pain in palm & fingers, inability to pronate the forearm & flex the proximal interphalangeal joint
Dorsal scapular nerve Distribution: levator scapula, rhomboid major & minor
Long thoracic nerve Distribution: anterior serratus
Long thoracic nerve injury winged scapula: paralysis of the serratus anterior
Suprascapular nerve Distribution: supraspinatus & infraspinatus
Thoracodorsal nerve Distribution: latissimus dorsi
Upper Subscapular nerve Distribution: subscapularis
Lower Subscapular nerve Distribution: subscapularis, teres major
Lateral Pectoral nerve Distribution: pectoralis major
Medial Pectoral nerve Distribution: pectorals major and minor
Pectoralis minor Origin: 2-5 / 3-5 ribs Insertion: coracoid process Action: abducts scapula & rotates it downward
Serratus Anterior "boxer muscle" Origin: 1-8 / 1-9 ribs Insertion: vertebral border & inf. angle of scapula Action: abducts scapula & rotates it upward
Trapezius Origin: Occipital bone, ligaments nuchae, C7-T12 (only muscle with this origin) Insertion: clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula Action: elevates, adducts, depresses scapula, rotates scapula upward (only muscle that can do all 3)
Levator Scapulae Origin: transverse process C1-4 Insertion: superior vertebral border of scapula Action:elevates scapula
Rhomboid major Origin: Spine T2-T5 Insertion: vertebral border of scapula inferior to spine Action: elevates & adducts scapula & rotates it downward
Rhomboid minor Origin: Spine C7-T1 Insertion: vertebral border of scapula superior to spine Action: elevates & adducts scapula & rotates it downward
Pectoralis Major Origin: clavicle, sternum Insertion: greater tubercle, intertubercular Action: adducts & medially rotates arm, flexes
Latissimus dorsi Origin:spine T7-L5, iliac rest Insertion: intertubercula sulcus of humerus Action: adducts, medially rotates, extends
Deltoid Origin:clavicle, acromion, spine Insertion: deltoid tuberosity Action: abducts, flexes, medially rotates
Subscapularis Origin: sub capular fossa Insertion: lesser tubercle Action: medially rotates
Supraspinatus Origin: supraspinous fossa Insertion: greater tubercle Action: abducts arm
Infraspinatus Origin: infraspinous fossa Insertion: greater tubercle sulcus of humerus Action: laterally rotates and adducts arm
Teres Major Origin: inferior angle of scapula Insertion: intertubercular Action:adducts, medially rotates, extends
Teres Minor Origin: lateral border of scapula Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus Action: laterally rotates and adducts arm
Coracobrachialis Origin: coracoid process Insertion: middle of medial shaft of humerus Action: flexes and adducts arm
Biceps Brachii Origin: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula, coracoid process Insertion: radial tuberosity Action:flexes, supinates
Brachialis Origin: distal ant. surface of humerus Insertion: ulna tuberosity & coronoid process Action: major flexor
Brachioradialis Origin: lateral border of distal humerus Insertion: process of radius Action: flexes, supinates, pronates
Triceps Brachii Origin: infraglenoid, medial & lateral of humerus Insertion: olecranon process Action: extends forearm & arm
Created by: _melgozacaroo15