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PPRA 3315

Exam 04

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between DHP and non-DHP calcium channel blockers, and where do they work? DHP work primarily in the periphery. Non-DHP work primarily in the heart. Both decrease oxygen requirement.
What are the different type of diuretics, and what are examples of each? Loops (furosemide, torsemide, bumetanide), thiazide (hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, metolazone), potassium sparing (triameterene, amiloride)
Which diuretics are best for removing large amounts of water (edema)? Loops
What monitoring is necessary for diuretics? BP, pulse, electrolytes, compliance, BUN/Crcl.
Be able to counsel a patient who is just starting diuretic therapy. What should they expect? DI with sulfonamides, HOTN, hyponatremia.
What is normal blood pressure? 120/80. Upper limits for <60yo: 140/90. Upper limits for >60: 150/90
Adverse effects of beta-blockers: decreased HR, BP, + contractility. AV block, bronchospasm, fatigue, vasospasm.
Adverse effects of loop diuretics: acute renal failure, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, HOTN, ototox
Adverse effects of ACE inhibitors dry cough (5-20%), angioedema, hyperkalemia, skin eruptions, ageusia, teratogenic.
Adverse effects of clonidine: peripheral vasodilation, dry mouth, sedation.
Adverse effects of ARBs dizziness, HA, drowsiness, n/v, diarrhea, cough, hyperkalemia, HOTN, muscle + bone aches, rash,
Adverse effects of nitrates: Decreased ventricular volume, decreased arterial pressure, decreased eject time, orthostasis, HA, TACHY
What is the difference between non-selective and selective beta-blockers? Selective are only for B-1. Nonselective are for B-1 + B-2.
What are examples of selective beta-blockers? Metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol
What are examples of nonselective beta-blockers? Pindolol, nadolol, bisoprolol, acebutolol
Which forms of nitrates are immediate acting? sublingual, IV, buccal.
Which forms of nitrates are long-term? transdermal
What are the adverse effects of nitrates? Decreased ventricular volume, decreased arterial pressure, decreased eject time, orthostasis, HA, TACHY
Be able to counsel a patient on the appropriate use of nitroglycerin tolerance: Need nitrate-free 10-12hr/day. Monitor HR<100, SBP>90-100, HOTN
What is chronic heart failure (CHF) which drugs/drug classes are used in the treatment of CHF ace-I, ARBs, aldosterone antagonists, beta-blockers, nitros + hydralazine,
Examples of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin
examples of fibrates fenofibrate and gemfibrozil
Examples of niacin niacor, slo-niacin, niaspan
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Adverse effects Myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, increased hepatic enzymes.
Adverse effects for Fibrates increased AST + ALT. Increased risk of gallstones. Gemfib + statin increases myopathy risk.
Adverse effects for niacin increased liver enzymes, gout, aggravation of PUD
adverse effects for niacor flushing
Adverse effects for niaspan flushing + hepatotox
Adverse effects for slo-niacin hepatotox
Which drug class is best for lowering LDLs? HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Which drug is best for raising HDLs? Niacin
Which drug is best for lowering triglycerides? fibrates
Adverse effects of statins myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, hepatic enzyme increase
Patient counseling for statin drugs do not take if pregnant. PO daily as single dose. monitor fasting lipid profile, CK, + LFTs.
Created by: antwauhn