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Science PT 2

Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks and The Rock Cycle

QuestionAnswer
What is a sedimentary rock? Sedimentary rocks are rocks created from sediments in which have been cemented and compressed together. They are the only rocks in which can contain fossils.
How is a sedimentary rock formed? Forces in nature break down rocks into smaller and smaller pieces. These broken pieces are called fragments. Fragments are moved by water, wind, and frozen water called glaciers. The fragments settle in a new place and cement, forming sedimentary rocks.
How are sedimentary rocks classified (by grain size)? Sedimentary rocks are classed by grain size. The order from largest to smallest grain size is: gravel --> sand --> silt --> clay
What is a clastic sedimentary rock? A clastic sedimentary rock is a sedimentary rock formed from older, larger rocks that have been broken into smaller pieces then re-cemented into a new rock. E.g. shale, conglomerate or breccia
What is a chemical sedimentary rock? A chemical sedimentary rock is a sedimentary rock formed when water evaporates leaving behind crystals. E.g. rock salt
What is an organic sedimentary rock? An organic sedimentary rock is a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of dead organisms. E.g. coal, limestone
Name 4 examples of sedimentary rock. 1. Shale 2. Sandstone 3. Conglomerate 4. Coal
What is a metamorphic rock? Metamorphic rocks are rocks in which have changed from a sedimentary or igneous (can also be changed from another metamorphic) rock in which has been compressed under intense heat and pressure and has changed into a new metamorphic rock.
What factors contribute to the creation of metamorphic rocks? Factors in which contribute to the creation of metamorphic rocks include: the type of parent rock; the amount of heat; the amount of pressure; amount of time under heat and pressure.
What are the two types of changes that occur to metamorphic rocks? Changes can be physical or chemical, which includes the formation of new minerals not seen in igneous or sedimentary rocks.
What is a physical change that happens to metamorphic rocks? One physical change that happens to metamorphic rocks is known as foliation, which is where the metamorphic rock develops layers or bands.
Name 5 examples of metamorphic rocks and their parent rocks. 1. limestone (S) --> marble (M) 2. mudstone/shale (S) --> slate (M) 3. granite (I) --> gneiss (M) 4. soft coal (I) --> hard coal (M) --> diamonds (M) 5. sandstone (S) --> quartzite (M)
What is the rock cycle? An idealised cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust. This involves igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, and further melting and igneous intrusion.
How does magma turn into Igneous Rocks? Magma changes into igneous rocks by the process of COOLING.
How do Igneous Rocks turn into sediment? Igneous rocks change into sediment by the process of WEATHERING AND EROSION.
How do Igneous Rocks turn into Metamorphic Rocks? Igneous rocks change into metamorphic rocks by the process of HEAT AND PRESSURE.
How do Igneous Rocks turn into magma? Igneous rocks change into magma by the process of MELTING.
What are the main processes to which rocks change between states in the rock cycle? Rocks change between states in the Earth's crust, as demonstrated in the rock cycle. These processes are: cooling; melting; weathering and erosion; heat and pressure; and compaction and cementation.
How does sediment turn into Sedimentary Rocks? Sediment changes into sedimentary rocks by the process of COMPACTION AND CEMENTATION.
How does Sedimentary Rock turn into sediment? Sedimentary rocks change into sediment by the process of WEATHERING AND EROSION.
How does Sedimentary Rock turn into metamorphic rocks? Sedimentary rocks change into metamorphic rocks by the process of HEAT AND PRESSURE.
How does Metamorphic Rock turn into sediment? Metamorphic rocks change into sediment by the process of WEATHERING AND EROSION.
How does Metamorphic Rock turn into magma? Metamorphic rocks change into magma by the process of MELTING.
What is weathering? Weathering is the breakdown of the materials of the Earth's crust into smaller fragments. Weathering happens to rocks that are NOT moving.
Name the three types of weathering? The three types of weathering include physical, chemical and biological weathering.
Define physical weathering. Physical weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller fragments by external conditions. E.g. frost, friction & impact, temperature changes
Define chemical weathering. Chemical weathering is the process by which the minerals that make up a rock are changed, leading to the disintegration (break down) of the rock. E.g. water, oxygen, acid rain.
Define biological weathering. Biological weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down by the actions of plants and animals. E.g. burrowing, tunneling, plants laying down roots.
What is erosion? Erosion is the process by which water, ice, wind or gravity MOVES fragments of rock and soil.
What is the cause and definition water erosion? Water erosion is when water flows over rocks and moves the rock, removing sediments. Run-off, rivers and streams are all causes of water erosion.
What is the cause and definition ice erosion? Ice erosion is when ice freezes over a rock and makes the rock slides over a surface, slowly moving the sediment apart. Glaciers are a cause of ice erosion.
What is the cause and definition wind erosion? Wind erosion is when wind blows the sediments of a rock off the surface of the rock and into a different location. Causes of wind erosion on a rock include cyclones, sand storms, sand dunes, plant and sand erosion, and beach and dust storms.
What is the cause and definition of mass movement erosion? Mass movement erosion is when sediments of a rock are carried from one point to another due to the movement of the Earth. Causes of mass movement erosion include land slides, mud slides and avalanches.
What is the difference between weathering and erosion? The difference between weathering and erosion is that erosion has moved it by natural devices (e.g. water, wind, mass movement) whereas if a rock is weathered, it has been stationery and the stuff around it has broken down the rock.
What is transportation? Transportation is the carrying of sediment away from the site of weathering/erosion. i.e. pebbles rolling along a river bed being carried by the movement of water, or sand/sediments being carried by wind. Transportation usually occurs as part of erosion.
What is deposition? Deposition is the process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a land form or land mass. Deposition is the building up of layers of sediment.
What is the effect of rapid temperature changes on rocks? When heated then cooled rapidly, the glass shattered due to the extremes of temperature. Hence, when the heated glass was placed into the hot water, the glass did not experience vast extremes, so the glass did not shatter, merely crack.
What is foliation? Foliation is the physical change by which layers or bands are formed in a metamorphic rock.
How does the glass heating experiment reflect on how rocks form? The way the glass cracked & shattered due to the extremes in temperatures is similar in rocks. If a rock must cool rapidly, it often doesn't develop fully, will shatter or easily weather/erode. The opposite applies to a rock given a long time to cool.
Created by: topstudent<3