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Intro to Psych Ch. 7

TermDefinition
Sensory Memory The part of memory that holds information in its original sensory form for a very brief period of time, usually about 1/2 a second or less
Short-Term The part of memory that temporarily stores a limited amount of information before it is either transferred to long-term storage or forgotten
Working Memory The part of the memory required to attend to and solve a problem at hand; often used interchangeably with short- term memory
How Short-Term Memory Works 3 distinct processes attends to stimulus (Focus on the task at hand and develop a plan) Storing info about the stimulus (Taken in & sent to temporary storage) Phonological loop Visuospatial sketchpad Episodic buffer
The Serial Position Effect When learning a list of items, it is easier to recall the items as the beginning and end of the list
Long-Term Memory The part of memory that has the capacity to store a vast amount of info for as little as 30 sec or your entire lifetime
Types of Long-Term Memory Implicit memory (How to ride a bike) Explicit (Where you left your car keys)
Implicit Memory Memory made up of knowledge based on previous experience Able to recall automatically Contains procedural memory and priming Retrieved without effort
Explicit Memory Knowledge that consists of the conscious recall of facts and events Requires effort in order to be retrieved
Stages in Long-Term Memory Encoding Consolidation Storage Retrieval
Encoding Process by which the brain attends to, takes in, and integrates new information Attention drives the encoding process (automatic or effortful)
Consolidation Process of establishing, stabilizing, or solidifying a memory proteins are created for long-term memory information Sleep plays a huge role in this process
Amnesia Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease
Absent-mindedness Forgetfulness due to inattention
Anterograde amnesia Inability to remember events that occur after an injury or the onset of a disease
Blocking The inability to retrieve some information once it is stored
Chunking Grouping things together 4738291827 ---> (473)- 829- 1827
Episodic memory Recalls the experiences we have had
False memories Memories for events that never happened, but were suggested by someone or something
Interference Disruption of memory because other information competes with information we are trying to recall
Memory The ability to store and use information; also to store what has been learned and memories
Mnemonic device Used to remember things ROY G. BIV --> Used to remember the colors of the rainbow Creates visual or mental stroll to recall information
Priming Implicit memory that occurs when recall is improved by prior exposure to the same or similar stimuli
Proactive interference Disruption on memory because previously learned information interferes with the learning of new information
Procedural memory Implicit knowledge for almost any behavior or physical skill we have learned
Recovered memory Memory from a real event that was encoded, stored but not retrieved for a long period of time until some later event brings it to consciousness
Rehearsal Cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it
Repression Unconscious act of keeping threatening thoughts, feelings or impulses out of consciousness
Retrieval The recovery of information stored in memory The ease of retrieval and the time frame over which we can recall is determined by the previous stages of memory
Retroactive interference Disruption of memory because new experiences or information causes people to forget previously learned experiences or information
Retrograde amnesia Inability to recall events or experiences that happened before the onset of disease or injury
Schemas Mental frameworks that develop from our experiences with particular people, objects, or events
Semantic memory Recalls facts and general knowledge
Storage Keeping memories or information in your brain
Three-stage model of memory Classification of memories based on duration as sensory, short-term, and long- term
Hierarchies A way for organization relating pieces of information from the most specific feature they have in common to most general
Short term memory capacity differs for everyone 5-9 letters on average some struggle with 3 others can do 12 easily
Primacy effect Beginning of the list
Recency effect End of the list
Associative networks A chain of associations between related concepts Associations bind concepts together
Suggestibility Problem with memory that occurs when memories are implanted in our minds based on leading questions comments or suggestions by someone else or some other source
Created by: kristaj