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Biology lap 11

test review

QuestionAnswer
grass Runner
Iris Rhizomes
potatoes tubers
daffodils Bulbs
banana Corms
airplane plant Plantlet
kalanchoe Plantlet
gladiotes Corms
Belgians Corms
tulips Bulbs
garlic Bulbs
onions bulbs
yams Tubers
ferns Rhizomes
strawberries Runner
What does the term “alternation of generations” refer to? life cycle of plants has 2 alternating phases: the diploid (2N) sporophyte phase and the haploid (N) gametophyte stage.
How has the period of time a plant spends in the gametophyte phase changed over the evolution of plants? The gametophyte phase has shortened and the sporophyte phase had increased.
In moss, what is the term for the female reproductive organ where eggs are formed ? Archegonia
What is the advantage of angiosperms in term of seed dispersal? The seeds often are transported away from the parent plant thereby lessening competition for nutrients and water with the parent plant as well as increasing the range that the species are located.
What is the name of the vascular tissue that transports water upward from the roots to every part of the plant? The Xylem
In ferns, what is the name of the organ that produces eggs? Archegonia
Archegonia forms and produces eggs,
Which species are all land plants thought to have evolved from? Green algae
What is germination? Germination is when the seed “sprouts”: The seed coat swells and opens and stems and roots emerge. “Seed to seedling”
What do the terms “monocot” and “dicot” refer to? The number of leaves an embryonic plant has within the seed
Describe the artificial plant propagation technique of “cutting”. What type of plants can be propagated this way? Cutting is when a plant stem or leaf is cut from one plant and placed in water and dirt to form a new plant. Coleus and African violets are examples of plants that can be propagated this way.
Which evolutionary adaptation in plants allowed them to colonize even the driest environments? The seed!
What 3 conditions must be optimal for a seed to germinate? The amount of water, oxygen, and temperature.
In seed plants, where is the male gametophyte contained? It is contained within the pollen grain.
Why were the first plants confined to areas where there was water and moisture? Because early plants depended on water (through which the sperm swam to the egg) for reproduction.
What is the name of the vascular tissue that transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis? The Phloem
What are tubers and give an example of plants that reproduce using them? Tubers are swollen underground stems used for storage. Examples of tubers are potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams
What is a seed? A seed is a plant embryo and food supply, encased in a protective covering
In seed plants, in what structures do the gametes develop? Cones or flowers
What is an angiosperm? Flowering plants that bear their seeds in flowers inside a layer of tissue that protects the seeds.
What develops from the radicle portion of an embryonic plant? The roots
What is the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female reproductive structures called? Pollination
Pollination the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female reproductive structures
What is contained within a pollen grain? Two sperm
Which part of the flower becomes the seed? The ovules
What are plantlets and give an example of plants that reproduce using them? Plantlets have small baby plants growing on the parent plant. Examples of plants that can reproduce this way are the airplane plant, kalanchoe, and the Dutchmans’ pipe.
What is a cotyledon? An embryonic plant leaf within the seed.
In monocots, floral parts are often found in what multiple of parts? Flower parts are found in multiples of 3
What is a pollen tube? The tube that forms once the pollen lands on the female reproductive structure and creates a passage for the sperm to travel to fertilize the egg.
What part of the plant develops from the hypocotyl? The stem below the cotyledons
What part of the plant contains sperm? The pollen in the anther.
What is the purpose of the seed coat? The seed coat protects the embryonic plant from the harsh environment. It protects it until conditions are right for germination.
List different kinds of pollinators. Mammals, birds, bees, other insects and the wind.
In ferns, what is the name of the organ that produces sperm? Antheridia
How are angiosperm seeds dispersed? (Name at least two methods.) Through wind, water, attaching to animals passing by, fruit eaten and seeds defecated by animals, and by “explosion.
In moss, what is the term for the male reproductive organ where sperm are formed ? Antheridium
What type of plant sprout and grow short stems and maybe some leaves the first year and grows new stems, leaves, flowers, and seed before dying in the second year. A biennial
Which part of the flower becomes the fruit? ovary
How are the veins of a dicot leaf arranged? They branch out on the leaf.
Why do gymnosperms spend so much energy making pollen? Because they do not have pollinators and are at the mercy of wind dispersal of pollen.
What is a gymnosperm? Gymnosperm means “naked seed”. They bear their seeds directly on the scales of cones.
What are the structures found in a seed? A seed coat, an embryonic plant: cotyledons, epicotyls, hypocotyls, radicles, and endosperm.
What adaptations allow seed plants to reproduce without open water? 1) A reproductive process that takes place in cones or flowers 2) The transfer of sperm by pollination 3) The protection of the embryos in seeds
How are the veins of a monocot plant arranged? They are parallel to each other on the leaf
How long can embryonic plants stay dormant in its protective seed coating? From 10 to 1000 years
What are rhizomes and give an example of plants that reproduce using them? Rhizomes are horizontal stems below the ground. Fern and irises can reproduce this way.
What part of the plant develops from the epicotyl? The stem above the cotyledon leaves and leaves.
In dicots, floral parts are often found in what multiple of parts? Flower parts are found in multiples of 4 or 5.
The haploid sperms of the fern develop on the underside of the fronds in what structure? The sporangia and/or sorus
What is an imperfect flower? A flower that contains either a male or a female reproductive part of a plant.
How are the vascular tissues in a monocot arranged? Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem.
What is the function of the endosperm in the seed? The endosperm is a source of food for the embryonic plant and during germination. It is mostly starch with some protein and oils.
How are the vascular tissues in a dicot arranged? Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring in the stem.
What kind of root does a monocot have? A fibrous root.
What do you call a plant that grow from a seed to maturity within a year? An annual.
What kind of plant reproduction doesn’t require seeds? Asexual reproduction.
What are runners and give an example of a plant that uses them to reproduce? Runners (or stolons) are horizontal roots above the ground. Strawberries and grass are examples.
What kind of root does a dicot have? A taproot
Describe the artificial plant propagation technique of “layering”. What type of plants can be propagated this way? Layering is when a branch is bent to the ground and covered with soil to form a new plant. Forsythia and raspberries are examples of plants that can be propagated this way.
What type of plants have stems that die in the winter and are replaced in the spring, most having woody stems? A perennials
If a plant had 12 petals, how can you tell if it is a monocot or dicot? Look at the leaves of the plant and determine how the veins run.
Describe the artificial method of propagating plants called “grafting”. Grafting is when a twig from one type of plant is placed against the exposed body of another plant and bound together.
Grafting is when a twig from one type of plant is placed against the exposed body of another plant and bound together. A flower that contains both male and female reproductive parts of a plant.
List different adaptations of angiosperms that attract pollinators. Petals of different colors, nectar, oils, mimic mates,
What are corms and give an example of plants that reproduce using them? Corms are thick button-shaped underground stem that store food. Examples of plants that can reproduce this way are gladiolus, begonias, and bananas.
green algae are now considered to be plants
Seeds dispersed by animals are typically enclosed in fleshy, nutritious fruits
The parts of a flower that form the fruit are the carpel
Seeds dispersed by water are typically lightweight
Seed Dispersal - Explosion - Animals - Pollinates - Wind - Water
Female reproductive system archegonia
Male reproductive part antheridium
Photosynthesis phloem
Perfect flower both male and female parts
1 embryonic leaf monocot
2 embryonic leaves dicot
branched leaves dicot
multiples of flowers 3 monocot
multiples of flower 4 or 5 dicot
fibrous monocot
tap roots dicot
number of leaves on the plant cotyledon
ovule becomes fruit
anther pollen sacs
spores are formed in the sporangium
starch, oil, proteins endosperm
seeds determine if it's a fruit or plant true
What are seed banks, who owns them, what is their purpose?? A place that stores seeds to preserve genetic diversity, The Government corporations, their purpose is in case we run out of food or a plant species the seed banks help replenish them.
birds and bees color - attracts the animal archid -gets close inside, flower dumps pollen on to it petals - animal messenger for them to come
How do humans use plants? We use plants for food, and for oxygen, for cosemetics, dyes,
Created by: fikott1