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science test 3/24/17

species a group of organisms that share similar characteristics
species can reproduce among themselves and produce fertile offspring
evolution changes inherited characteristics over time
Darwin studied finches on Galapagos island, found they were all similar to one type of finch
Darwin believed the finches changed as they complete for food
natural selection organisms with traits best suited for the environment survive and reproduce traits are passed down on to offspring.
natural selection unfavorable traits die off with offspring that do not survive
variation inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of its species
variation can come from mutations
variation beneficial mutations are more likely to be passed on due to natural selection
variation changes in species can take a long time to appear when members of same species move into or out of area
variation if small number of individuals are isolated from other variation may appear in one population that are not present in the other
variation populations can become so different due to this that they become 2 different species and can no longer breed
adaptation variation that increases an organism's chance for survival
gradualism slow process where one species changes into another
punctuated equilibrium rapid evolution occurs when individuals mutate and pass on those mutations/traits
punctuated equilibrium when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics this is happening
fossil remains or traces of once living organism
fossil usually found in sedimentary rock
imprint carbon that is left after organisms decay; can harden to rock
cast sediments fill cavity left by decaying organisms
mold impression of the shape or track of an organism
relative dating an estimate about the age of the fossil based on the location in the rock - older fossil are father down in rock
radiometric Dating amount of time it takes for 1/2 of radioactive material to decay
radiometric Dating radioactive material is unstable and decays at set rate
radiometric Dating more accurate for determining fossil age
embryonic structures early in development human embryos and other vertebrate embryos look similar. Used to link species
vestigial structures a part that functions in one organism but does not function in another. show common ancestor. i.e) tailbone
homologous structures structures that are developmentally similar but have different functions. Shows common ancestor
Primates -opposable thumbs-grab objects -binocular vision- judge distance -flexible shoulders that rotate- more range of motion
Created by: faithrinrhart