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Chapter 51


Visual Acuity snellens or E chart to test near and far
Normal Acuity 20/20
Low Acuity 20/70
Blind Acuity 20/200
OD right eye
OS left eye
OU both eyes
Visual fields by conformation tests peripheral vision
Muscle balance & movement tests extraocular & cranial nerve function
Muscle balance & movement test Pt looks straight ahead and follows finger movement without moving their head
Nystagmus involuntary, rapid eye movement
Corneal light reflex assess muscle balance
Corneal light reflex test shining pen light toward cornea while pt looks straight ahead
Corneal light reflex normal/abnormal should be steady gaze, if movement occurs could indicate muscle weakness
Tropia deviation away from
Esotropia deviation toward nose
Hypotropia downward deviation
Exotropia lateral movement
Pupillary reflexes tests response to light
Pupillary reflex test pt looks straight ahead, pupil size noted, pen light shone, pupil observed
Pupillary reflexes normal should constrict
Consensual response normal constriction from pupillary reflex
Accommodation pupil responds to near and far
External exam inspected and palpated
Eyebrows starting point- symmetry, hair texture, extension of brow
Orbital area check for edema, puffiness, redness, lesions
Palebral Fissure (eyelids) distance of upper + lower lids
Medial Canthus of lower lid- for exudate
Internal eye intraocular pressure measured
Structures of eye Fibrous, vascular, neural- protect eye from debris & desiccation, oil secreted to slow evaporation of tears
Lens changes shape for near and far
Rods dim light, night vision, no color distinguish
Cones central, bright light, sharp vision/color
Desiccation extreme dryness
Fibrous outer layer sclera, cornea
Sclera outermost, white of eye, BV and nerves
Cornea transparent, over iris, admits light, NO BV
Vascular middle layer iris, ciliary body, choroid
Iris adjusts diameter of pupil to control amount of light entering
Ciliary body thick extension, around lens, aqueous humor
Choroid supplies oxygen & nutrients to retina and sclera
Neural inner layer retina, optic nerve
Retina thin, light sensitive
Optic nerve signals to brain
Aging and the ear difficult to filter out background noises, impaired verbal communication, corti hair cells damaged, high pitched range lost, **F,S,K,Sh sounds lost first
Created by: jessicamiller