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AJ75 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
The belief an eye for an eye can be traced to the ancient law of the Hebrews known as the Mosaic Code
The enlightenment concept of human nature sees individuals as all of the following except a0 Possessing Free Will, B) Constrained in their Choices, C) Hedonistic, D) Rational B) Constrained in their choices
The letters de cashet required proportionality between the level of harm inflicted upon a victim and the severity of punishment. True or False False
What may be described as the state authorized imposition of deprivation-liberty, resources, or even life to one convicted of a crime? A0 Sentence, B) Punishment, C)Retaliation, D)Revenge B) Punishment
Beccaria advocates that a system of punishment should include all pf the following except.. A)Proportional Punishment, B)Certain Punishment, C)Death Penalty, D) Swift Punishment, E)Making a lasting impression C) Death Penalty
Benthams philosophy of social control rests on the principal of Utility
He believed that the cause of robbery in the 18th century London was poverty. Henry Fielding
Positivism (Increased, Decreased, Removed, Had no Impact) on the amount of discretion judges enjoyed in sentencing individuals Increased
Positivists rejected much of the philosophical basis of classical thinkers arguments and instead relied on.. Studies of the Causes of crime to determine appropriate punisments
Positivists approaches to punishment invoked the notion of science to determine the causes of crime and craft the appropriate punishment. True or False True
Emile Durkheim contended that punishment is functional for society in some ways. True or False True
During what period of History did Positivism emerge The 19th Century
Which perspective of punishment assumes that individuals can be transformed through effective programming Reintegration
Nationwide, following release, how soon do approximately 33% of former prisoners reoffend within? The first 6 months
They came to America in 1931 intent on studying the newly minted prison system Beaumont and Tocquerville
In which period did the Catholic Church have its greatest influence? The Middle Ages
Galley Slavery was used most regularly A)By the ancient Greeks and Romans, B)By the late Middle Ages, C) In the American Colonies, )D In Norfolk Island Australia B) By the late Middle Ages
After the disentegration of feudalism what sparked government entities to increasingly respond in a more severe fashion in the demand for resources? Poverty
Early workhouses were known as Brideswells
What location did Alexander Maconochie warden for? Norfolk Island
The inmates at Norfolk prison followed what type of system that rewarded them for good behavior? The Marks System
He was the Sheriff of Bedford England and was influenced by the Enlightennent period John Howard
He created the Panopticon. He was also from the Enlightment period. Jeremy Bentham
He was influenced by his Quaker religious principles as well as the Enlightement Period William Penn
The first jail in America , built around 1606, was located in Jamestown Va.
The influence of religion on early prison operations in the US was due primarily to.. The Quakers
Which Enlightenet Period influenced reformer instituted his Great Law which deemphasized the use of corporal punishment for all but the most serious of crimes? William Penn
One of the earliest American makeshift prisons known as Newgate prison in Simsbury Connecticut started out as a what? Mine
The Walnut Jail was considered by most to be the first jail. True or False True
After the Walnut jail was remodeled and reforms implemented, children were still incarcerated there. True or False False
The New gate prison in New York City did NOT focus on A Rehabilitation, B) Religious Redemption, C)Work Programs, D)Corporal,Punishment D) Corporal Punishment
Which early facility was built by architect John Haviland from England Eastern Pennsylvania Prison
Which prison was the Newgate Prison system modeled after? The Walnut Prison
The seperate system is part of which prison model? The Pennsylvania Prison model
This prison system, built 8 years before Eastern, was little studied or discussed. The Western Pennsylvania Prison
The Eastern Pennsylvania Prison was the first to have this. Hot water and flushing toilets.
Inmates at Eastern PA prison were only allowed to have contact with ____ and ____ . Clergy and teachers
The purpose of solitary confinement was to achieve reform and _____ rehabilitation
This prison system model was preferred over the PA system and was copied extensively by American prison builders. New York
Solitary confinement finally ended before the Civil War True or False False. Ended after 1913
This prison system had small coffin-like cells and allowed inmates to work together during the day but they had to do so in silence Auburn Prison
What was the first major prison reform in the US? The declaration of principles
What year did American Prison Congress convene? 1870
The reason the Southern prisons developed on a different trajectory than other prisons Slavery
Who provided the philosophy "Justice consists of treating equals equally and unequals unequally according to relevent differences"? Aristotle
Sentence type in which number of years person may serve s not fixed Indeterminate.
Which statutes derived from the same punitive atmosphere that led to truth in sentencing statutes Habitual Offender
A presentence Investigation Report is written generally by... The Probation Officer
Which entity was charged with creating the mandatory sentencing guidelines? The United States Sentencing Commission
Created by: JeromeG