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Spinal 3 - PCC

Spinal final exam

How many vertebral segments in the sacrum? Shape of the sacrum? Where is the concavity? 1. 5+-1 2. Triangular 3. Anteriorly
Body of S1 is what shape? Reniform
Pedicle of S1 is continuous with what? Transverse process
S1 LAMINA is what shape? Forms the begining of what? 1. Triangular 2. Sacral canal
Highly modified TP of sacrum is called what? Costal element forms the what? 1. Sacral ala 2. Anterior two thirds of ala
True TP forms what? Posterior one third of ala
Superior articular facet of S1 faces ___? T or F: mammilary processes are always present? 1. BUM 2. F
Union of left and right lamina forms what? Spinous tubercle
Anteriorly, bodies of the sacrum are seperated by what? Transverse ridges
Ventral sacral foramina allow ___ spinal nerves to exit? S1-S4
On the lateral sacral mass: where is the costal element present? Where is the true TP present? 1. S1-S3 2. S4 and S5
Anterior protrusion of superior epiphyseal rim Sacral promontory
Median sacral crest is formed by fusion of what? Spinous tubercles of S1-S4
Intermediate sacral crest formed from fusion of what? Articular processes of S1-S5
Termination of intermediate sacral crest Sacral cornu of S5
Sacral cornu is formed from what? Inferior articular process of S5
Opening between left and right sacral cornu Sacral hiatus
Lateral sacral crest is located where in relation to the dorsal sacral foramina? Lateral
Lateral sacral crest is formed form the fusion of what? Transverse tubercles of S1-S5
Lateral sacral crest starts with what? Ends at what? 1. Sacral tubercle 2. Inferior sacral angle
Sacral tubercle which is also what? Sacral tuberosity is what? 1. Transverse tubercles of S1 2. Transverse tubercle of S2
Bony ridge found between the superior and inferior articular facets Interarticular crest
Inferior articular facet of the typical ribs articulares with what? Superior costal demi facet of that vertebrae
True ribs? False ribs? Floating ribs? 1. 1-7 2. 8-12 3. 11-12
Coccygeal cornu projects ___. Formed from what? 1. Superiorily 2. Superior articular process
The articular facet of the costal tubercle is positioned more ___ and ___? Inferiorly and proximally
The non articular surface of the costal tubercle is a site for ligamentous attachment between what? Rib and TP of thoracic vertebrae
3 functions of rib cage 1. Protection 2. Support 3. Assists with respiration
Non articular surface of costal tubercle is positioned more __ and __? Superiorly and distally
Superior articular facet of typical ribs articulates with the __ costal demi facet of which vertebrae? Which rib, which vertebrae? 1. Inferior of the vertebrae above it 2. Rib 7 with T6
The auricular surface on the lateral surface of the sacrum is located completely in the ___ Costal element
The costal element is located on the ___ surface of the sacrum between ___. May extend to ___ 1. Anterolateral 2. S1-S3 3. S4
Looking at the lateral surface of the sacrum: The true TP extends where? S1-S5
The apex of the sacrum is made of 2 things from S5 Vetebral body and inferior epiphyseal rim
Sacral canal extends form what to what? Vetebral foramen of S1 to sacral hiatus of S5
Coccyx consists of ___ fused rudimentary segements 3-5
Vertebral body of CO1 may resemble what? Superior and inferior epiphyseal rim
Co2-Co5 consists only of ___ bodies Rudimentary
Thoracic cage is composed of what? Ribs, costal cartilage, septum and thoracic vertebrae
How many ribs? 12 +- 1
Typical ribs? Capitulum costae AKA what? 1. 3-9 2. Head
Describe lumbarization of S1 An S1 which may be seperated from S2 resulting in a squaring of vertebral body and flaring of the sacral ala
Collum costae AKA what? Neck
The crest of the neck of the typical ribs is located where? Superior surface
Structure on neck of typical ribs that contains the articular facet and a non articular surface Tubercle
What does the articular facet of the tubercle of the typical ribs articulate with? Transverse costal facet of same numbered vertebrae
Corpus costae AKA ___ of typical ribs has 3 components. 1. Shaft 2. Costal angle, costal groove, costal cartilage surface
Rib 1: The capitulum costae holds the articular facet of capitulum. What does it articulate with? Superior costal facets of T1
Rib 1: Collum costae? No distinctive crest
Rib 1: The corpus costae houses three important landmarks. 1. Groove for subclavian artery 2. Scalene tubercle 3. Groove for subclavian vein
Rib 1: The corpus costae is missing two features 1. Costal angle 2. Costal groove
What is the distinguisinh factor of rib 2? Tuberosity for the serratus anterior
Rib 2: The tuberosity for the serratus anterior is on the __ aspect of the corpus costae Superior
Rib 10: the capitulum costae is variabloe with one or two articular facets. Why? Due to T10 gaving a full facet or demi-facet
Rib 10: Articular facet of ___ may be missing. Why? 1. Tubercle 2. Due to the transverse costal facet of T10 being there or not
On the 11th rib, the capitulum costae has a __ articular facet? Single
Rib 11: what is absent? Collum costae and tubercle
Rib 11: corpus costae: What may be shallow or absent? What is absent? 1. Costal groove 2. Costal cartilage
Rib 12: capitulum costae? Singular articulating facet
Two ribs in which the collum costae and tubercle are absent? 11 and 12
Rib 12: corpus costae: what is missing? 1. Costal angle 2. Costal groove 3. Costal cartilage surface
Located just lateral to the jugular notch Clavicular notch
Notch that lies immediatly inferior and lateral to clavicular notch Costal notch 1
Notch at the inferior latreal margin of the manubrium joins with the gladiolus Costal notch 2
Angle formed by the anterior surfaces at the junction of the manubrium sterni and gladiolus Sternal angle
Integumentary system is composed of what? Skin + accessory organs
4 function of skin 1. Protective covering 2. Regulation of body temp 3. Housing cutaneous sensory receptors 4. Excretion of waste
What layer of skin retains inernal body heat Subcutaneous
Three ways in which skin can eliminate excess body heat? 1. Radiation 2. Evaporation 3. Convection
Composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Epidermis
Layers of the epidermis deepes to most superficial 1. Stratum Basale 2. Stratum Spinosum 3. Stratum Granulosum 4. Stratum Lucidum 5. Stratum Corneum
What is the only mitotic layer of the epidermis^ Stratum Germinativum
Stratum germinativum is ___ + ____ Stratum Basale + Stratum Spinosum
Structural protein which toughens and waterproofs the surface of epidermis Keratin
Manufacture of keratin begins in what layer? Stratum Spinosum
Layer with 20-30 layers of dead keratinized cells. Stratum Corneum
Composed of CT, muscle fibers, blood vessels, hair follicles, exocrine glands and sensory nerve fibers Dermis
2 layers of the dermis 1. Papillary layer 2. Reticular layer
Thin layer of loose connective tissue directly under the epidermis? Papillary layer
Dermal Ridges or __ are what layer? 1. Finger prints 2. Papillary layer
Dense irregular CT later that is elastic and produces stretch marks when over stretched Reticular layer
Loose CT later composed of adipose tissue with no sharp boundries from the dermis? Subcutaneous Layer
__% thicker adipose tissue in woman than in men 8%
What produces our pinkish pigment? Blood flow in the dermis and subcutaneous layer
Yellow pigment is because of what? 1. Cartene 2. Thicker stratum corneum with more keratin
Having a thicker stratum corneum which gives you an increased ammount of keratin. This is primarly found in asians. What color will this produce? Yellow
Produces brown pigment. What layer is it produced in? 1. Melanin 2. Stratum Basale
True or false: Everyone has the same amount of melanocytes? True
Small isolated patches of highly concentrated melanin? Freckles
Freckles are an accumulation of what? Melanin
Dark skin protects us against what? UV radiation
T or F: Melanin absorbs UV radiation and prevents excessive amounts from reaching the actively dividing cells of the stratum basale and dermis? F : Stratum geminativum
Presence of a thicker ___ also prevents excess UV from reaching mitotic layers Stratum corneum
What cells respond when we tan? Melanocytes
Production of vitamin __ is directly related to amounts of __ we get 1. Vitamin D 2. UV exposure
What is more susceptible to damage from extreme cold? Dark skin
Hair and hair follicles reside in the ___ and the ___ layer but are made from __ tissue. 1. Dermal and subcutaneous layer 2. Epidermal tissue
Tube like structure housing the hair formed from a group of epidermal cells which invaginates down into the dermis Hair follicle
Zone of actively dividing cells at the base of the hair Bulb
Column of flattened, dead, keratinized cells with the follicles Root
Part os the hair external to the skin surface Shaft
Attachments of the errector pilli muscles Hair follicle to the dermis
Where are melanocytes located in the hair? Base of the hair bulb
Mixture of pigmented and unpigmented hair = what color? Gray
Red hair is due to what? Iron
Straight or curly hair is determined by the shape and size of what? Hair follicle
Two functions of hair? 1. Protection 2. identification
People of what descenbt are the hairiest? European (hirsute)
East asians and amerindians are the least hairest. What is this called? Glabrous
Hardened stratum corneum of the nail Nail plate
Underlying the nail plate, continuous with the strutum basale and stratum spinosum Nail bed
Half moon of the nail Lunula
2 functions of the nail 1. Protection 2. Digital dexterity
Secretes sebum which lubricates and waterproofs hair and stratum corneum Sebaceous glands
Odoriferous sweat glands (or suderiferous) that respond to emotional stress Apocrine
True sweat glands found all over the body. Function are to cool down the body and excretion of bodily waste Eccrine glands
Touch receptors located in the dermal papillae and functions in discriminatory touch Meisner's corpuscles
Sensory nerve ending wrapped aroun the hair follicle (discriminatory touch) Hair root plexus
Merkel's disks are type ___ mechanoreceptors. Speacialized epidermal cells attached to ___. Function? 1. 1 2. Stratum basale 3. Discriminatory touch
Type 2 mechanoreceptors AKA ___. Location? Function? 1. Ruffini end organs 2. Deep in the dermis 3. Non-discriminate touch
Lamellated corpuscles, AKA what? Location? Function? 1. Pacinian corpuscle 2. Deep within the dermis 3. Sustained pressure
2 types of neoplams 1. Cutaneous carcinoma 2. Cutaneous melanoma
Caused by long term exposure to UV radiation and is malignant? Divisible into basal cells and squamous cells. Cutaneous carcinoma
Due to relatively short but intense exposure to UV radiation and is highly malignant. Cutaneous melanoma
Xiphoid process AKA what? 1. Ensiform process 2. Metasternum
Corpus sterni or body Gladiolus
Lines between the individual sternebrae Tramsverse lines
Notch at the superior lateral margin of the gladiolus where the gladiolus joins with manubrium Costal notch #2
Notch at teh inferio-lateral margin of the gladiolus, where the gladiolus joins the xiphoid process Costal notch #7
"osis" means what? Condition of
An abnormal posterior concavity FG flattened kyphotic curve Lordosis
Flattened lordotic curve or abnormal anterior concavity Kyphosis
Word that can be used in conjunction with hypolordotic Kyphosis
Decreased anterior concavity Hypokyphotic or lordosis
What makes up the occipitocervical zone Occipital bone and C1
C1 fuses with the occiput Occipitalization of C1 AKA atlas assimilation
C7 apopears more thoracic like. May have a cervical rib? Dosalization of C7
T12 appears to have a concave superior articular facet. 12th rib may also be smaller Lumbarization of T12
Developement of a lumbar rib on L1 Dosalization of L1
L5 may be fused to S1 Sacrilization of L5
T or F: it is common to have sacrilization of L5 true
Flaring of the sacral ala, hyperdeveloped transverse tubercle of sacral ala or a squaring or the vertebral body of S1 Lumarization of S1
S5 is seperate from sacrum and is fused to the coccyx Coccygealization of S5
How many vertebral segements of sacrum? Shape of sacrum? Where is the concavity? 1. 5+-1 2. Triangular 3. Anterioly
Created by: LrB