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ch. 4 part 2

microbiology ucc 108

What is cytoplasm? (prokaryotic cell) Everything surrounded by plasma membrane, 80% water, thick/aqueous/semi-transparent, elastic
What structures are included in cytoplasm? Nuclear area( containing DNA), ribosomes, inclusions
What does nuclear area (nucleoid) contain? (prokaryotic cell) A single, long, continuous, circularly arranged thread of double stranded DNA, no nuclear membrane, no histones, chromosome( attached to plasma membrane), plastids
What are plasmids? (prokaryotic cell) Small circular double stranded DNA molecule which are extra chromosomal. Not crucial for survival. Carry genes for antibiotic resistance, production of toxins, synthesis of enzymes. Plasmids can be transferred from one cell to another.
What are ribosomes? (prokaryotic cell) site of protein synthesis, present in the cytoplasm, 70s( composed of 2 units-50s larger, 30 s smaller)
What are inclusions? (prokaryotic cell) (never enclosed by a membrane) reserve deposits of certain nutrients, also serve as basis for identification
What are meta-chromatic granules (volutin)? (prokarytic cell) reserve of inorganic phospate (for ATP), by bacteria growing in sulfur rich area, characteristics of corynebacterium diphtheriae (causes diphtheria)
What are polysaccharide granules? (prokaryotic cell) of glycogen and starch, energy reserves
What are lipid inclusions? (prokaryotic cell) energy reserves
What are sulfur granules? (prokaryotic cell) energy reserves
What are carboxysomes? (prokaryotic cell) ribulose 1, 5-diphosphate carboxylase for C02 fixation
What are gas vacuoles? (prokaryotic cell) protein-covered cylinders
What are magnetosomes? (prokaryotic cell) Iron oxide (destroys H202) in several gram negative bacteria
What are endospores? (prokaryotic cell) specialized resting cells; highly durable dehydrated cells with thick walls and additional layers formed internal to the bacterial cell membrane when essential nutrients are depleted; allow a cell to survive environment changes
What is sporulation? (prokaryotic cell) process of endospore formation within a vegetative cell ( when environment is unsuitable)
What is germination? (prokaryotic cell) process of an endospore returning to its vegetative state triggered by breakdown in its coat and resumption of metabolism ( when environment becomes suitable for growth)
Flagella in Eukaryotic cell contains cytoplasm, enclosed in plasma membrane consisting of 10 pairs of microtubules( 9+2 arrangement), creates wave-like movement, has tapering ends
Flagella and cilia (eukaroytic cell) microtubules, made of protein tubulin, 9 pairs +2 arrangements of microtubules
Cell wall Eukaryotic cell may or may not have cell wall. if present is simple than prokaryotic. Algae/plants=cellulose, fungi= chitin, yeast= glucan and mannan,
Plasma membrane (Eukaryotic cell) fluid mosaic form, have sterols/carbs that serve a receptors that trigger various kinds of cell behavior, additional transport mechanisms (endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis)
Nucleus (Eukaryotic cell) spherical or oval, largest structure, contains DNA, has nuclear envelope, has nucleoli, contains histones and nonhistone proteins, has many chromosomes
Ribosomes (Eukaryotic cell) 80s with 60s and 40s subunits ( 70s inside chloroplasts, mitochondria), synthesize protein, RER bound =insertion in plasma membrane or export from cell, free=synthesize proteins to be used inside the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum (Eukaryotic cell) extensive network of flattened membranous sacs of tubules continuous with nuclear envelope
Rough ER (Eukaryotic cell) outer surface is studded with ribosomes, site of protein synthesis; factory for synthesizing secretory proteins and membrane molecules
Smooth ER (Eukaryotic cell) synthesizes phospholipids, fats, steroids; in liver= help increase glucose and detoxify drugs, in muscles=release calcium ions
Golgi Complex (Eukaryotic cell) 1st step in protein transport, proteins from ER arrive in vesicle and release in the cisterns, protein are modified by enzymes to form glycoproteins, lipoproteins
Mitochondria (Eukaryotic cell) power house, ATP production, double membranous, cristae= inner membrane arranged in series of folds, center = matrix that contains proteins that function in cellular respiration, also contains mitochondrial DNA, outer membrane= smooth
Chloroplasts (Eukaryotic cell) if present, contains the pigment cholorophyll and enzymes for light-gathering phase of photosynthesis
Lysosomes (Eukaryotic cell) formed from golgi complex, contain as many as 40 different kinds of powerful hydrolytic enzymes capable of breaking down various molecules and bacteria
Centrioloes (Eukaryotic cell) pair of cylindrical structures, 9 clusters of 3 microtubules arranged in circular pattern ( 9+0); play role in formation of regeneration of cilia and flagella, also needed during cell division
Peroxisomes (Eukaryotic cell) similar to lysosomes but not produced by golgi, contain 1 or more enzymes that can oxidize various organic substances, enzymes present also detoxify substances like alcohols, also contain enzyme catalase to detoxify hydrogen peroxide
Endosymbiotic Theory of Evolution (Eukaryotic cell) larger bacterial cells lost their cell walls and engulfed smaller bacterial cells(living together); mitochondria probably o2 requiring heterotrophic bacteria, chloroplasts are descendants of photosynthetic bacteria
Created by: smwondr