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genetics vocab

genetics and heredity

TermDefinition
Alleles different forms of a gene
Dominant An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when it is present. It masks the recessive form of the trait
Egg female sex cell (gamete) that contains only 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes
Sperm male sex cell (gamete) that contains only 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes
Fertilization fusion of a an male and female gamete to produce a zygote
Gamete male or female sex cell, sperm or egg, contains only 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes
Genetics the study of heredity
Genotype combination of genes in an organism
Heredity passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Heterozygous a pair of genes where one is the dominant allele and one is the recessive allele — they're different Dd Rr
Homozygous a pair of genes where both are either dominant or recessive alleles--they've the same DD rr
Hybrid An organism that has two different alleles for a trait. Hybrids are heterozygous for the trait
Phenotype outward appearance of an organism,
Recessive A trait that is masked when the dominant allele is present
Sexual Reproduction Requires 2 parents - Results in offspring that are genetically different from the parents.
Trait characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
Zygote diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg
Gene A unit of DNA that controls the development of a trait. It is located on a chromosome and is inherited from a parent through sexual reproduction.
Purebred An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait. Purebreds are homozygous for the trait
Probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Punnett Square A chart that shows the possible combinations of alleles that result from a genetic cross
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. A molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth of organisms.
Chromosome A strand of DNA that is encoded with genes. Located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
DNA Replication A process whereby the original (parent) strands of DNA in the double helix are separated and each one is copied to produce 2 new (daughter) strands
Asexual reproduction Requires 1 parent. Results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
Deoxyribose The sugar that is found in the backbone of DNA and to which the nitrogenous bases are attached
Nitrogenous bases Nitrogen containing molecules that are found in DNA. An organisms genetic code is determined by the order of the bases in its DNA.
Nucleotides The building blocks of DNA. Each nucleotide contains 1 nitrogenous base, one sugar (deoxyribose), and one phosphate group.
Double helix The shape formed by two parallel lines that twist around each other
XX The sex chromosome combination found in females
XY The sex chromosome combination found in males
Incomplete dominance When the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is distinct from the phenotypes of the homozygous genotypes. The offspring of a red and white flower might be pink instead of red or white..
Mutation when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to alter the genetic message carried by that gene
Created by: deeceesk8ts