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Adv. Bio Chapter 7

Membranes

TermDefinition
Selective Permeability A property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passage of substances across them.
Fluid Mosaic Model The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
Glycoprotein A protein with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates.
Osmosis The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Tonicity The ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water.
Isotonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell.
Hypertonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
Hypotonic Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
Facilitated Diffusion The passage of molecules or ions down their electrochemical gradient across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins, requiring no energy expenditure.
Active Transport The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, mediated by specific transport proteins and requiring an expenditure of energy.
Membrane Potential The difference in electrical charge (voltage) across a cell’s plasma membrane due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
Exocytosis The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane.
Ligand A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
Electrochemical Gradient The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion’s tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force).
Created by: Mr.Devine
 

 



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