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Ecology Populations

chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
Name 4 characteristics of populations population density, spatial distribution ( dispersion), population range, and population growth rates
Name the two models for population growth rate exponential growth and logistic growth
What factor in an environment can depend on population density .. being density dependent or independent limiting factors... ( density independent are usually abiotic and include natural phenomena... Density dependent are often biotic such as predation, disease, parasites and competition)
4 bisons / square kilometer is an example of the population characteristic called ? density
3 examples of spatial distribution are .... uniform, clumped, and random
How the members of the population are spaced within the area is called spatial distribution or dispersion
What term describes animals that are usually in a clumped arrangement within their area herds
dandelions are typically found in what spatial distribution random ( due to light seeds that are wind blown and they can go almost anywhere)
How is the population range of a population normally displayed they are shown with a map that is colored to show the various places they live.. one color in the summer and another color for the winter
What is used to describe the species distribution ( multiple populations of the same type of animal) the population range
What is the typical shape of the graph of exponential growth J shape
What is the name of the population growth model that is "S" shaped logistic growth
Which type of population growth graph levels out at carrying capacity logistic growth
what are 4 factors that help determine the population growth rate NATALITY, MORTALITY, EMIGRATION, IMMIGRATION
What are the meaning of natality, mortality, emigration, and immigration... which two are most important for determining the population growth rate birthrate, death rate, ( these are the most important for determining pop. growth rate.... number moving away from the population and number moving into the population
The slow population growth at the beginning of the exponential and the beginning of the logistic population growth rate model is called the LAG PHASE
in the exponential growth model , how do you know when the population begins to reproduce rapidly that is when the graph become "J" shaped
All populations grow? until some ? slows the population's growth exponentially, limiting factor
What can you say about the use of resources when a population is growing? the use of resources is exponential, so the resources will become limited and population growth slows
the maximum number of individuals in a species that an environment can support for the long term carrying capacity
How do populations tend to grow when they are near or at carrying capacity? many populations tend to stabilize near carrying capacity. they FLUCTUATE above and below the carrying capacity line..
drought, flooding, tornadoes, predation, disease, parasites, and competition are things that can restrict the numbers or organisms, their reproduction, or their distribution... they are called limiting factors
For any environmental factor there is an upper limit and a lower limit that define the conditions in which the organism can survive... this is called the organism's _______ range of tolerance
When the environmental factor IS OUTSIDE OF THE RANGE OF TOLERANCE of the organism then it becomes a/an limiting factor
the zone where organisms may show difficulty with growth or reproduction and other bodily functions is called the zone of physiological stress ( there will be fewer organisms living in this area)
the area that is outside ( above or below) the zone of physiological stress is called the _____ zone of intolerance
The area on the range of tolerance where you would find the greatest number of organisms is the area that has ideal conditions for the organism and is called the optimum zone
Created by: shemehl