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ANAT/PHYS ch. 1-5

Summer school. Exam 1 material Chapters 1-5

Gross Anatomy 1. Regional, 2. Systematic, 3. Surface
Study of cytology and histology Microscopic Anatomy
Embryology developmental changes that occur before birth= developmental anatomy
Levels of structural Organization 1. chemical, 2. cellular, 3. Tissue, 4 Organ 5 organ system 6. organism
study of structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Anatomy
the study of the function of the body physiology
Composed of the skin, sweatglands, oil glands, hair. Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D Integumentary system
Provides support and protection, stores calcium and other minerals, forms blood cells Skeletal
Provides movement, protection and support for other tissues, generates heat that maintains body temperature, facilitates face expression Muscular
male- produce sperm and hormones; female- prodcues female sex cells (ocytes) and hormones, supports developing emry from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish new born Reproductive
Digestive processes and digests food. Breaks down macromolecules
Directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates directs immediate responses to stimuli , moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions Nervous
Adjusts metabolic activity and energy uses by body, controls structural functional changes during development, Endocrine
Distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and CO2 Cardiovascular
Defends against infection lymphatic
Delivers air to alveoli, provides O2 to bloodstream, removes CO2 from bloodstream, produces sounds for communication Respiratory
Conserves body water or elminates excesses Urinary
maintains internal conditions. A dynamic state of equilibrium to maintain a constant environment homeostasis
system where output shuts off the original stimulus. EX: REgulation of room temperature; glucose regulation. Body tries to restore to original state negative feedback
System where the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus positive feedback
Forms of energy Chemical, electrical, mechanical (ATP), radiant
globular proteins that act as biological catalysts, REgulate and accelerate the rate of biochemical reactions Enzymes
proton donor (release H+ ions) lower pH, more H+ Acid
proton acceptor, higher pH, more OH- Base
Buffer chemical system that regulates pH
Cell theory 1. Basic structural and functional unit of living organism 2. Organism depends on cells 3. Biochemical activities of a cell are dictated by their organelles, 4. Continuity of life has a cellular basis
3 major parts of a cell Nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
Plasma membrane composed of a double layer of phospholipids embedded with small amounts of cholesterol and proteins .
polar head (hydrophillic) non polar tail (hydrophobic) phospholipid fluid mosaic of plasma membrane
attached to sugar groups which is attached to lipid. How cells will recognize one another. Found on the outer plasma membrane glycolipids
stabilizes the membrane cholesterol
Has a transmembrane, has transport channels and carriers and signal transduction Integral protein
Attached to integral protein, enzyme and signaling proteins Peripheral protein
Branchign sugar groups attached to proteins facing extracellular space Glycocalyx
Functions of membrane protein Transport- hydrophillic channel or pump
Intercellular joining Example: stomach and GI tract do not want bacteria or stomach acid leaking through
Cell- Cell Recognition glycoproteins- build up plaque on tooth - will pull away from gum
Large particles, macromolecules and fluids transport across.. vesicular transport
Process used to move substances from inside the cell to the extracellular environment Exocytosis
Process used to move substances from teh extracellular environment to inside the cell Endocytosis
In a solute pump sodium... Na+ wants to rush inside the cell because it is much higher outside the cell
In a solute pump potassium.. K+ wants to rush outside the cell because its concentration is much higher inside the cell
High to low concentration area; nonpolar and lipid soluble Diffusion
Passive process Diffusion
Moves through the plasma membrane by protein carriers or by channels Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion of water across a semi permeable membrane; simple diffusion Osmosis
Total concentration of solute particles in a solution Osmolarity
How a solution affects cell volume Tonicity
Isotonic affect of tonicity, solutions with solute concentration = cytosol (saline)
Hypertonic affect of tonicity-solutions solute concentration > cytosol (muscle will shrink or crenate)
Hypotonic affect of tonicity- solutions solute concentration < cytosol (more water= expand and could burst or lyse
metabolic energy required Active transport
finger like extensions that increase the surface area of a cell; cue of absorption microvilli
Impermeable junction Tight junction
Anchoring junction Desmosomes
Nexus that allows chemicla substances to pass between cells Gap junction
What are 2 plasma membrane Receptors? Integral proteins and glycoproteins
Used for chemical signaling ligands
source of energy-hydrolysis of ATP ; transport protein changes protein and pumps molecule against their concentration gradient Primary active transport
Co-transport of 2 solutes Secondary active transport
G protein-linked receptors ligans bind to receptor which activates a G protein causing the release of a second messenger such as cyclic AMP * refer to cartoon*
What is located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus? Cytoplasm
What is the cellular power plant? Mitochondria
What contains its own DNA and RNA and is maternal? Mitochondria
Where does ATP synthesis take place? Mitochondria
2 membranes where the outer is smooth and the inner is cristae Mitochondria
What is externally studded with ribosomes; cisterna, and phospholipid synthesis? Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
______ guides protein with signal sequence to RER receptor so protein can enter RER signal recognition particle= SRP
Processing in RER lumen... 1. signal sequence removed; 2. protein folding to active structure 3. Enclosed in vesicle for transport to GOLGI
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions: 1. Lipid metabolism; 2. cholesterol synthesis 3. steroid hormones; 4. Drug and alcohol detoxification' breakdown of stored glycogen
What looks like a stack of pancakes; package, modify and transport protein? Golgi Apparatus
part of golgi apparatus that receives from RER Cis face
part of golgi apparatus that exits and ships trans face
degradation if cell makes a protein that does not really need= rids it in the golgi with _______
What contains digestive enzymes; acid; destruction of worn cell parts' and foreign particles? Lysosomes
Apoptosis cells not contained or dies because of corrupt signaling
What targets ingested bacteria; viruses; toxins; aged organelles; metabolic functions; non-useful tissues; and breakdown of bone for Ca2+? lysosomes
What cell organelles function in supporting cellular structures and in generating cellular movement? Cytoskeleton
What allows for spatial organization? Cytoskeleton
Name the different types of rods in the cytoskeleton. Microfilament, intermediat filament, microtubule
globular protein linked together and ______ proteins; gives strength to cell surface; attached to cytoplasmic site of cell membrane microfilament
fibrobrous subunit; high _______ ________. Intermediate filament
What gives the cell a shape and holds organelles in place; and is made of _________ protein? Microtubule; tubulin
Where is the microtubule organizing center and where are these located? centrioles- in cytoskeleton in centrosome near the nucleus
What are centrioles made up of and what is their function? made up of triplets of microtubules and they organize spindle during cell division (mitosis). They also form the base of the cilia and flagella
What is the largest organelle and is the control center for the cell activity? Nucleus
Describe the structure of the nucleus Nuclear envelope (outer membrane); nuclear pores (things in cytosol enter and exit); nucleoli (where ribosomes assemble); chromatin (DNA and histones- form nucleosomes)
What are the paired cylinders that aid chromosome movement during mitosis? Centrioles
What is grandular; threadlike; DNA and histone proteins; synthesis DNA genes? Chromatin
What molecular components of lipid bilayer of plasma membrane possesses a charged polar head and an uncharged non-polar tail? phospholipid
What cell structures are involved in propelling substances across cell surfaces? cilia
How is DNA packed in the Nucleus? 24 chromosomes (22 autosomal, 2 sex). It is diploid; 46 total (22X2)+2;
Genotype always reflects phenotype FALSE
fundamental DNA packing unit Nucleosome
bind DNA and wrap into chromosomes (beads on a string) histones
When replicating chromosomes, the mitotic spindle attaches here: Centromere
The end of each chromosome has this: It shortens every time the cell divides. It is also known as the biological clock. Telomere
Why is a telomereic sequence of DNA (telomerase) said to be a biological clock? Because it shortens to a point where division stops.
Detoxify harmful or toxic substances, neutralize dangerous free radicals Peroxisomes
Cell cycle order: Growth (G1), Synthesis (S), Growth (G2), mitosis, cytokinesis
Centriole pairs separate and mitotic spindle formed Early and late prophase
Chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell with their centromeres aligned at the exact center of cell metaphase
Centromere of chromosome split and each chromatid becomes a chromosme in its own right. Separate to each pole Anaphase
New sets of chromosomes extend into chromatin. New nuclear membrane is formed Telophase and cytokinesis
Division of the cell Cytokinesis
When does DNA replication take place? During the S phase (interphase)
Enzyme first needed in DNA replication Helicase
What enzyme unwinds DNA at replication fork? Helicase
What enzyme makes strand of nucleic acid ? DNA polymerase
What controls cell division? What tells cell to keep pushing through? cdk and cyclin; MPF
What regulates progression during cell division? Cdk proteins
What does cyclin do during cell division? reulates protein. Increase it and it will lead to cell division
What forms when cyclin and cdk fuse together? After fused and form new product... what does the new product do? MPF- signaling switch that allow cell to go rom G2 to M phase
The control that is regulated by abundance: _____ cyclin
the control that is regulated by activity:_____ Cdk
What phase does the division of the nucleus take place in? mitotic phase
Chromatin is condensed in this phase Early prophase
Nuclear membrane fragmentation occurs during this phase late prophase
chromosomal reach pole and extend during this phase telophase
What happens when cell division is not under control? Cancer
Tumor that is slow to grow benign
Tumor that is non-encapsulated, rapid growth, and metastasis malignant
What is cell transformation? environment vs. genetics; carcinogens cause DNA mutation
what are p53, p16, and APC? tumor suppressor genes that control cell division; They inactive carcinogens, aid in DNA repair, destroy cancerous cells
What does protein synthesis involve? transcription and translation
Transfer of information from the sense strand of DNA to RNA; occurs in nucleus transcription
production of proteins by decoding mRNA produced in transcription translation
Codons a triplet in the gene transcription
segment of DNA that codes for a polypeptide chain or amino acid Gene
DNA contains both ________- and _________ regions coding and noncoding
spliced out of DNA- do not code for proteins Introns
have triplet codons to make proton exon
control point of whether transcription of gene will occur. Turns on or off gene promoter
mRNA into protein and occurs in cytoplasm translation
involves 3 types of RNA and what are they? translation: mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
what is the working copy of RNA in translation; what is being read? mRNA
what is cytoplasmic RNA and consists of proteins rRNA
What brings amino acid to ribosome so it can be added in the right order? It includes a head (anticodon) and a tail- binds amino acid tRNA
Binding of amino acid to the tRNA requires what? ATP; tRNA synthtase (enzyme attaches to proper tRNA
degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins; needs ATP proteolysis
The tag for protein degradation Ubiuitin
Proteolysis needs ATP for: Damanged proteins (free radicals); incorrectly folded proteins (process error); aged/non needed proteins (cyclins)
complex of protein digesting enzymes; protein degraded to small peptides and amino acid proteasome
Cell differentiation move cells from being generic to specific: mesoderm, endoderm, ectoderm
programmed cell death; protects cells against cells that have gone array Apoptosis
Cellular toxin build up, free radical damage, glycosolation of proteins environmental causes of apoptosis
Genetic causes of apoptosis Only a finite number of cell divisions; telomere shortening, immortal cells- cancer
groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a related function. All the material between cells Tissue
Types of tissue Epithelial (covering), Connective (support), muscle (movement); nerve (control)
Sheet of cells lining a body surface or body cavity Epithelium
Types of Epithelium lining/ covering; grandular
Protection; absorption; filtration; excretion; secretion; sensory reception Functions as an interface tissue
Characteristics of Epithelium cellularity, specialized contacts, polarity, supported by connective tissue; innervated nerves but avasuclar; regeneration
Lots of cells in a small area cellularity (epithelium)
impermeable membrane in between cells- TIGHT junctions, microvili Specialized contacts (epithelium)
Apical, basal, basal lumina top of cell, bottom of cell, connective tissue under cell- Polarity (epithelium)
Basal surface supported by connective tissue (epithelium)
No blood supply Avascular (epithelium)
Can be restored after injury Regeneration (epithelium)
flattened and scale like cells of epithelia Squamous cells
boxlike cells of epithelia cuboidal
tall column shaped cells of epithelia columnar cells
one layer of cell in epithelia simple
multiple layers of cells in epithelia stratified
Epithelia where passage of material by diffusion and filtration where protection is NOT important Simple Squamous
What class of cells of Epithelia are located in the kidney, lining of the heart and blood vessels? simple squamous
What have a single layer of cube like cells with large sperical central nuclei? simple cuboidal
Name the type of epithelia that is used for secretion and absoption Simple cuboidal
What class of cells of Epithelia are located in the kindney tubules, ducts and surface of ovary? simple cuboidal
Which Epithelia class protects underlying tissues in the areas subjected to abrasion? stratified squamous
In stratified squamous epithelia cells, basal cells are _____ or _____ and _______ active cuboidal or columnar and metabollically active
What cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers? Basal cells of the stratified squamous
Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth and vagina Stratified Squamous
Which epithelia cell is both stratified squamous and stratifed cuboidal? transitional epithelium
Transitional epithelium is both ________ and _________ stratifed squamous and stratified cuboidal
Which epithelia cell stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine Transitional epithelium
Which epithelia cells lines the ureters, bladder and part of the urethra? transitional epithelium
This epithelia celll is found in the pharynex, male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts. it also occurs at transition areas or junctions between 2 other types of epithelia Stratifed columnar epithelium
ONLY its apical layer of cells is columnar Stratified columnar epithelum
Consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product, secretion made of protein gland
Types of glandular epithelium glands Endocrine glans, Exocirne glands, multicellular, unicellular exocrine glands
What is the difference between endocrine glands and exocrine glands? Endocrine- duct less, exocrine has a duct
Which gland produces hormones secreted directly into the extracellular space (basal lamina) get into blood stream Endocrine glands
What epithelia gland is multicellular and secetes through a duct into bodies or cavities Exocrine glands
This gland includes mucous, sweat, oil, saliva, bile Exocrine gland
Which 2 types of glandular epithelium have no ducts? Unicellular Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands
Gland that has a epithelium derived duct and a secretory unit of secretory cells Multicelluar Exocrine glands
Which gland is scattered in an epithelial sheet with other cell types and include goblet cells Unicellular Exocrine glands
Unbranched duct Simple multicellular exocrine glands
Branched duct compound multicelluar exocrine glands
Tubular vs alveolar vs tubuloavelolar secretory cells form tubes, secretory cells form small flask like sacs (small hollow cavity), secretory cells have both types
Ways in which multicellular exocrine glands secrete their products Merocrine glands and holocrine glands
secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produces merocrine gland
Secretory cells are not altered in any way Pancreas, most sweat glands and salivary glands belong to this class of secretory cells Merocrine glands
Secretory cells of _____________glands accumulate their products within them until they rupture holocrine gland
This gland secretions include the synthesized product plus dead cell fragments. they die for their cause holocrine gland
Examples of this gland secretion include sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin. Holocrine gland
What allows for homeostatic control? nervous and endocrine systems and negative feedback
The response of the effector is to depress or end the original stimulus adn the physiological function is maintained within a narrow range... Negative feedback
Cellular cytoplasm, is primarily composed of this substance proteins
Includes collagen and hemoglobin protein
What is the start codon that initiates transcription? ATG
What regulates RNA? splicing, stability, transport
Name the germ layers of cell determination mesoderm, endoderm, ectoderm
Germ layer: endoderm, what is the tissue type? Mucosae, glands (epithelial)= tissue type
Tissue type: muscle, what is the germ layer? Mesoderm= germ layer
Tissue type: Nerve tissue, what is the germ layer? germ layer: ectoderm
Tissue type: bone, what is the germ layer? germ layer: mesoderm
Germ layer: Ectoderm, what is the tissue type? Tissue type: Epidermis
Germ layer: Mesoderm, what is the tissue type? Tissue type: Mesothelium
An epithelium "built" to withstand friction is: Stratified Squamous
Functions of keratin include: Waterproofing, providing toughness
The gland type that secretes its product continuously by exocytosis into a duct is: merocrine
Functions of connective tissue: Binding, support, protection, repair
The original embryonic connective tissue is: mesenchyme
What gives fibrous elements a connective tissue high tensile strength? Collagen fibers
What cell types secretes histamine and perhaps heparin? Mast cells
Resistance to stress applied in a longitudinal direction is provided best by which tissue? Dens regular connective tissue
What type of connective tissue prevents muscles from pulling away from bone during contraction? Dense regular connective tissue
Holds large volumes of water, Has no nerve endings, grows both appositionally and interstitially Cartilage
Serous membranes always produce serous fluid adn mucous membranes always secrete mucus FALSE
Both serous and mucous membranes contain an epithelium plus a layer of loose connective tissue
Teh epithelical type is ________ in all serous membranes but there are _________ epithelical types in mucous membranes the same in all serous membranes but there are differnt epithelical types in ________
What membrane line closed body cavities? Serous membranes
What membranes line body caviteis open tto the outside? Mucous membranes
Which connective tissue forms the embryonic skeleton, covers surfaces of bones at joints, and reinforeces the trachea? Hyaline cartilage
Which connective tissue is firm, slightly rubbery matrix, milky white and glassy in appearance? Hyaline Cartilage
Connective tissue that stores fat and insulates the body Adipose tissue
Composes the basement membrane, surrouns and cusions blood vessesl and nerves; its gel-like matrix contains all categores of fibers and many cell types Areolar connective tissue
Which connective tissue has parallel bundles of collagenic fibers that provide strength; found in tendones Dense regular connective tissue
Which connective tissue is found on the skin dermis? Dense irregular connective tissue
Which connective tissue is found in external ear and auditory tube? Elastic cartilage
Which connective tissue forms the stretchy ligameints of the vertebral column? Elastic connective tissue
Which connective tissue contains collagenous fibersr; found in intervertebral discs? Fibrocartilage
connective tissue that is found in the umbilical cord mucous connective
Hardest tissue of our skull cap osseous tissue
Tissue's cells are arranged in concentric circles around a nutrient canal; matrix is hard due to calcium salts Osseous tissue
Tissue that makes supporing tframework of lymphoid organs Reticular connective tissue
Tissue that provies the medium for nutrient transport throughout the body Vascular tissue
Composed of ground substance and structural protein fibers Matrix of connective tissue
Composed of glycoproteins and water-binding glycosaminoglycans Ground substance of connective tissue
Tough protein fibers that resist stretching or longitudinal tearing Collagen fibers
Primary bone marrow cell type that remains actively mitotic Hemocytoblast
Fine, branching protein fibers that construct a supportive network Reticular fibers
Large, irrgulary shaped cells, widely distributed, often found in CT ; they engulf cellular debris and foreign matter and are active in immunity Macrophages
The medium through which nutrients and other substances diffuse Ground Substance
Living elements that maintain the firm, flexible matrix in cartilage Chondrocytes
Randomly coiled protein fibers that recoil after being stretched Elastic fibers
The structural element of areolar tissue that is fluid and provides a reservoir of water and salts for neighboring tissues Ground substance
In a loose CT, the nondividing cells that store nutrients Adipocytes
Teh embryonic tissue that gives rise to all types of CT Osteocytes
Cellular elements that produce the collagen fibers of bone matrix Osteoblasts
The nonspecifc response of the body to injury is called: Inflammation
Intact capillaries near an injuy dilate, leaking plasma, bloodcells, and_________ , which cause the blood to clot. The clot at the surface dries to form a scar clotting proteins
During Organization, the first phase of tissue repair, capillary buds invade the clot forming a delicate pink tissue called_____ tissue Granulation
________- synthesize fibers across the gap fibroblasts
When damage is not too severe, the surface epithelium migrates beneath the dry scab and across the surface of the granulation tissue. This repair process is called ________ proliferation
If tissue damage is very sever, tissue repair is more likely to occur by ______ or sarring fibrosis
During fibrosis, fibroblasts in the granulation tissue lay down ________ fibers , which form a strong, compact , but inflexible mass Collagen
The repair of cardiac muscle and nervous tissue occurs only by ______ fibrosis
______ is replacement of a blood clot by granulation tissue Organization
Granulation tissue resists infection by secreting _________ substances bacteria-inhibiting
Problems associated with _________ include shrinking, loss of elasticiity and formation of adhesions Fibrosis
What is proteoglycan Protein plus sugar - it is in ground substance. It traps water and regulates GS viscosity
Protein that forms coiled strands; can be cord or sheet Collagen
Specialized collagen that can stretch tissue and will recoil into native shape Elastic fiber
Fine fiber, basement membrane where 2 tissues connect, important for connective tissue epithelial cell connections Reticular fibers
Gives rise to all connective tissue Mesenchyme
Cellular decedents of Mesencyhme include: Fibroblast, chondroblast, osteoblast, hemtopoetic stem cell
Fibroblast is under what class of connective tissue Connective tissue proper--> Loose connective tissue (areolar, adipose, reticular) and Dense connective tissue (reticular , irregular, elastic
What cellular descendant of mesenchyme acts as a binding tissue, resists mechanical stress (tension) Fibroblast
Chondroblast's class of connective tissue resulting is what? Cartilage: Hyaline cartilage, fibrocatilage, Elastic cartilage
What cellular descendant of mesenchyme resists compression; cushions and supports body structures? Chondroblast
What cellular descendant of mesenchyme has rigidness that resists compressiona dn tension; support? Osteoblast
Osteoblast is a descendant of mesenchyme ; what class of connective tissue is it under? Osseous (bone)= Compact and spongy
What cellular descendant of mesenchyme has fluid tissue; transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, and wastes? Hematopoietic stem cell
Hematopoietic stem cell forms what? blood cells and macrophages
What connective tissue does hematopoietic stem cell form? blood- blood cell formation and differentiation.
Fibroblast Collagen
Chondroblast cartilage
Osteoblast bone
Hematopoietic Red and white blood cells
Loose connnective tissue include what? Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
Areolar has what types of fibers and what is it important for? - loose connective tissue = collagen and elastic fibers, important in inflammation, first layer in epiderms, wraps and cussions organs
This loose connective tissue supports and protects organs, insulates, and reserve food fuel Adipose
This ___________ traps and filters things. It is located in the spleen and kidney Loose connective tissue; reticular
Dense connective tissue includes: Dense regular and Dense irregular
This connective tissue attaches muscles to bones, Stress is linear EX: tendon or ligament Dense Regular Connective tissue
This connective tissue is able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; it is found in the digestive tract Dense Irregular connective tissue
3 types of cartilage Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and firocartilage
Supports and reinforces and compresison forces and binds, most abundant, lots of ground substance EX: rib cage, end of bones, nose Hyaline cartilage
Can be pulled and return to shape EX: in ear and epiclottis Elastic cartilage
Where hyaline meets a ligament Tough, dense, lots of collagen EX: disks in knee joints and intervertbral disk fibrocartilage
Cutaneous membrane SKIN
Keratinizes stratified squamous epithelium Epidermis
Areolar and dense irregular connective tissue dry membrane Dermis
Line body cavity open to exterior, lamina propria, stratified squamour or simple columnar epithelical, reticular fibers mucus membrane
Found in close ventral cavities, not exposed to outside = simple squamous or loose areolar connective tissue. Around lungs, herat, GI, abdomin Serous membrane
Enriches fluid with hyaluranic acid- lubricating fluid Serous membrane
Tissue injury stimulates what? Inflammatory responses and Immune response
What response to tissue injury is non-specific? Inflammatory
Which response to tissue injury is slower and attacks against invaders? Immune response
Is immune response non-specific? No
What goes on in the inflammation stage of tissue injury? Chemical reaction: injured cells, macrophages, mast cells, clotting proteins and then 2. Increase capillary permeability , fluid leakage, seal off wound, fluid accumulation- swelling , sensitive nerve endins and then 3. Clot formation stops bleeding
What is the second stage of tissue injury repair and what goes on during it? Organization and restore blood supply- granulation tissue is formed (pink tissue under scab)- capillaries form, collagen, macrophages
What is the 3rd stage of tissue injury repair? Regeneration and fibrosis- Regeneration (epithelium, macrophages, Fibrosis (connective tissue
Regeneration and fibrosis organization restores blood supply= permanent repair
Epidermis Stratified squamous epithilium
Keratinocytes, langerhan cells, merkell cells, and meloncytes are in what part of the skin? Epidermis
Which cell type is dead at the surface of epidermis? Keratinocytes
Which cell type has sensory nerve endings and receptors for touch in the epidermis? Merkell cells
Which cell type is found in the deepest layer of the skin? Melonocytes
Do layers of Epidermis have a blood supply? No
Which layer of the skin is closest to the blood supply? Stratum Basal
Which layer of skin has keratinized epithelial cells, merkel cells? Stratum basal
What layer is above the stratum basale? Stratum spinosum
Layer of skin that is not very thick and accumulates keratohyline granules Stratum granolosum m
Which layer of skin has dead keratocytes and is the protective layer? Stratum corneum
Layer of skin that increases surface area and has the basement membrane reticular fibers Dermis layer of connective tissue
Name the 2 layers of the dermis Dermal papillary layer and the reticular layer
Which layer of skin can be used for finger prints? Dermal papillary
Which layer of skin has the hair root, nerve endings, larger blood vessels, and sweat glands? Reticular layer of the Dermis
Which layer in the dermis is capable of standing stress from different directions? Reticular layer
Which Layer in the dermis has ariolar connective tissue Dermal Papillary
Dense irregular connective tissue is found in the reticular layer which is what layer of skin? Dermis
merocrine sweat glands
Derivatives of epidermis with role of maintaining homeostasis Skin appendages
Sudoriferous glands sweat glands
Secrete watery substances and sweat Eccrine
2 types of sweat glands Eccrine, apopcrine
sweat glands in axillary and anogenital area apocrine
sweat gland with ducts that empty into hair follicles apocrine
Sweat glands with high density on soles of feet, palms, forehead Eccrine
______- secrete sweat + fatty substances and proteins; milky color, androgen regulation Apocrine
Oil Sebacceous glands (aveolar)
These glands are everywhere except palms and soles of feet sebaceous glands
This gland secretes sebum (halocrine) Sebaceous gland
Sweat gland that lubricates, slows water loss, prevents brittleness in hair, bactericidal and stimulated by adrogen Sebaceous sweat gland
Hair is everywhere on your body except: palms soles of feet, lips, neipples, external genetalia
What is hair made up of? Dead keratinized cells
What is the part of the hair projecting from skin? Shaft
The _______ part of hair is embedded in the dermis Root
What are the 3 main regions of the shaft? Medula, cortex, cuticle
Where is the Medula and what does it consist of? shaft; hollow tube after exits skin, core, only in thick hair
Part of hair that has long , slender cells cortex
Outer layer of hair cuticle
What part of hair extends from epidermal surface into dermis? Hair follicle
The ______ has a root hair plexus (nerve endings? Hair follicle
2 types of hair Terminal and vellus
Thick hair terminal
hair with no medulla vellus
balding men go from ______ to _______ terminal to vellus
Baby cheeks vellus
fine hair vellus
How long does hair grow and in what amount of time? 2.5 mm per week
Alopecia hair thinning,
Frank baldness genetically AND sex influenced. males have DHT that causes hair follicles to go through short cycles
we lose ____ hairs per day 90
types of skin cancer basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, meanoma
sun exposure, least malignant, stratum cell proliferate and invade dermis Basal cell carcinoma
Skin cancer in which Keratinocytes of the stratus spinosum, grows rapidly Squamous cell carcinoma
Most dangerous skin cancer Meanoma
Identify skin cancer ABCD
ABCD a-symmetry, Border irregularity; indentations in border, Color- pigmented spot contains several black spots, Diameter larger than 6mm (pencil eraser)
Burns only the epidermis, localized redness, swelling and pain First degree burn
Epidermis and upper regions fo dermis are damaged Second degree burn
Entire thickness of skin is damaged. Burned area is gray-white, cherry red, or black. No pain Third degree burn
What are considered critical burns? over 25 % of body has 2nd degree burn; over 10% of body has 3rd degree burn; 3rd degree burns on face ands or feet
Used to estimate body fluid loss; divides body into 11 regions Rule of Nines
Does cartilage grow? Yes
How does cartilage grow? appositonal (outside) and interstitial growth (within)
Lacunae chondrocytes proliferate/ secrete matrix, happens in center of cartilage interstitial growth
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