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chapter 7 and 9

QuestionAnswer
what is compressive stress? flattens boddies, perpendicular to stress. convergent boundaries
what is sheer stress? flattens boddies, parallel to stress. convergent boundaries mostly in the subduction zone
how does sheer and compressive stress align minerals? Compressive or shear stress at convergent plate boundaries causes recrystallizing minerals to align with each other to create a layered texture known as foliation
what is contact metamorphism? Contact metamorphism involves the heat from a magma body baking shale into hornfels, sandstone into quartzite, and limestone into marble. does not affect large areas (non foliated) result in high temperature.
what is regional metamorphsim? Regional metamorphism involves tectonic stress aligning minerals into foliation, producing a sequence of shale->phyllite->schist->gneiss as temperature and pressure increase.
List in order the progressive metamorphic series? low pressure and temperature to high. micro shale (mica) to slate (mica) to phylitte (mica) to visible schist (mica) , gneiss to migamatite to magma
metamorphic rock of shale hornfels mica
metamorphic rock of sandstone quartzite
metamorphic rock of limestone marble
metamorphic rock of basalt hornfels
metamorphic rock of granite gneiss
composition of slate? mica
composition of marble? calcite
composotion of phylitte? mica
composition of quartzite? quartz
composition of schist? mica
composition of hornfels? made by the contact of mudstone and shale.
composition if gneiss? quartz, feldspar, hornblende
what is foliation? its a texture, exclusive to metamorphic rocks caused by differiented pressure.
In what type of tectonic environment are most metamorphic rocks formed? convergent plate boundaries
what are the degrees of folliation? list goes lower degrees to higher degrees. slaty cleavage (splits into thin plates), schistocity (visible aligned mica), gneissic - light and dark layers (highest degree)
factors in slope stability? slope angle, debris thickness, vegitation, plane orientation, and gravity
slope angle in slope stability? steeper the slope the less stable
debris thickness in slope stability? thicker debris means its weaker
vegiation in slope stability? more vegetation more stability
plane orientation in slope stability? bedding, foliation, and fractures. planes of weakness tend to be horizontal. parallel unstable to hill slopes. perpendicular more stable.
What are the common triggers? earthquakes (most common), undercutting, heavy rainfall, weigh added to upper part of the slope. (construction)
role of water in mass wasting. water affects sheer strength. dryer: not very stable low ss. damp: really stable high ss, saturated: extremely unstable very low sheer strength but high sheer force.
what is creep? (continous process) slow process happening on all slopes. not really an event. Not dangerous but destructive. expansion and contraction
what is toecutting?
what is mudflow/debrisflow? flowing mix of debris and water, usually channelized. Carrys big objects needs lots of debris and lots of water.
what is earthflow? often a slump at top, mostly a blanket of vegetation flowing downhill.
what is avalanche? turbulent flow of debris and air. very fast, and it has a swirling flow
what is rockfall? result of frost wedging or toecutting. rock falling
what is rockslide? (block glide) bedding planes, parallel to slope break off. usually breaks up into a rock avalanche.
what affects sheer force and sheer strength? Changes in slope angle, debris thickness, vegetation density, plane orientation, or moisture can raise shear force or lower shear strength enough to destabilize a slope.
what is sheer force? is opposed by shear strength, which is how well slope materials hold together. perpendicular force towards gravity, adding weight or steepness increases sheer force.
what is sheer strength? its the strength of the slope. the more sheer force, the less sheer strength means the slope is unstable. the less sheer force, the more sheer strength means the slope is stable.
name 5 ways mass wasting can be lessened during and after construction? stitching, removal, retaining walls with drains, Terracing
stitching adding bolts to add stability
removal remove part of the slope until it is more stable
retaining walls with drainage drain drives water out of the slope so the water doesnt move it, and wall to hold the slope
terracing if there are any rock fall, terracing will prevent the rocks to cause any damage it will just land on its step.
quick veg vegetation adds stability to a slope.
what is confining pressure? most common, all rocks are experiencing this. pressure applied in all sides.
what is differential pressure? greater force in one direction, usually caused by tectonic force.
Created by: sanchezdaniel