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Chapter 5 and 6

Chapter 5

what is weathering? destructive process that will, change the rock physically or chemically. 2 types of weathering chemical and mechanical. (breakdown)
what is erosion? initial removal of weathered material. (removal)
what is mechanical weathering? Mechanical weathering is simply rock breaking due to brute force.
what is chemical weathering? chemical weathering is decomposition due to attack by elements in air and water. Carbonic acid in rainfall, the dominant agent of chemical weathering,
how carbonic acid is formed and its role in solution and hydrolysis? Carbonic acid in rainfall, Carbonic acid slowly but completely dissolves calcite/limestone, carrying away ions in solution and leaving behind holes.
the concept of equilibrium in chemical weathering? When things are in equilibrium they are stable and will not change if there not stable then they will change to reach that equilibrium
what is earths crust made of? volume 95% crystalline and surface 75% sedimentary
what is differential weathering? weathering at different rates, some rocks are more resistant then others. cliffs are have more resistance rock then slope rocks.
why is weathering beneficial? it's beneficial for soil, nutrients, ores, and sediments. but can be destructive (weathers away rock)
3 most common ways rocks will weather? oxidation, solution, and hydrolosis
what are the 4 products of chemical weathering? iron oxide (extremely stable), ions (non solids), clay (microscoppic real absorbant), quartz (not effected by chemical weathering)
climatic effects on chemical weathering? the dryer the weather, the more slower chemical weathering. the more weather the more faster chemical weathering
What is the ecological significance of laterite soils? laterite soils are signifance un the tropical climates, as it is nutrient rich and without these soils it would dry out because the a horizon underneath is very poor.
what is frost wedging? water flows through cracks, it freezes. melts and repeats
what is abrasion? rocks hitting other rocks. grinding away by friction and impact. responsible fpr chopping off sharp edges. responsible for sand
what is hydrolosis? chemical weathering of feldspar. loose hydrogen are destructive, it boots the cation out and takes its place.
what is solution? usually slow but effective process of weathering and erosion in which rocks are dissolved in water.
what is laterite? a reddish clayey material, hard when dry, forming a topsoil in some tropical or subtropical regions and sometimes used for building.
what is detrital sediments? loose, solid particles derived from weathering. They are lumped into four size categories: gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Stacked rounded grains have spaces between them.
what is chemical sediments? ions dissolved in solution
what is detrital rocks? cemented fragments of other rocks, classified by texture first. rounded grains with spaces
what is chemical rocks? ions precipitated from solution. interlocking grains with no spaces. classified by composition 1st.
detrital rocks and grain sizes from largest to smallest. gravel larger 2mm(breccia), sand (quartz sandstone) 1/16-2mm, silt (siltstone)not visible grains 1/256-1/16, clay (shale) 1/256
what is sedimentary structure bedding? series of visible layers. horizontal bedding (most common), cross bedding (inclined layers inside horizontal layers), gradded vertical change in grain size
what is sedimentary structures ripple marks? perpendicular to the waves
what is sedimentary structure of mud cracks? about to dry out. water dries out
what is sorting? process of selection and seperation of sediment grains according to their grain size. gives us lots of clues of the ancient enviornment.
what is rounding? the grinding away of sharp edges and corners of rock fragments during transportation.
what is formation? a mappable rock unit. visible characteristics then its neighbors. naming a formation (type locality and rock type)
what is limestone composed of? calcite
what is shale composed of? mica
what is coal composed of? carbon
what is chert composed of? quartz
how grain size and rounding change with transport? the farther it travels the smaller the grain size and the rounder the rock, the closer it is from starting point then the bigger the grain size and sharper edges.
energy level and rock found in alluvial fan? high energy find conglomerate
energy level and rock found in beach? high energy quartz sandstone
energy level and rock found in lagoon? low shale micrite
energy level and rock found in lake? low shale
energy level and rock found in reef? high limestone
energy level and rock found in deep ocean? low chert
high energy causes what kind of grains? larger grains
what is lithification? compaction and formation of cement.
what is granite composed of? clay and quartz
horizons? O (really rich), A (really poor), B accumulation (really rich), C (weathering)
can quartz be affected by chemical weathering? quartz is nuetral so hydrogen cant do anything.
how does mechanical weathering speed up chemical weathering? Mechanical weathering speeds up chemical weathering by exposing new surfaces to elements like air and water.
what are the sedimentary structures? bedding, ripple marks, and mudcracks
Created by: sanchezdaniel