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autonomic NS (part of the PNS) responsible for assessing and maintaing the body's internal environment
somatic NS (part of the PNS) responsible for the body's interaction with the environment
sympathetic NS (part of the ANS) fight or flight
parasympathetic NS facilitates relaxation and replenishment
parasympathetic rebound extreme compensatory response of ones system to exreme activation of the other- can lead to fainting, ulcers, voodoo death
retina composed of neurons, multilayered, rear inner wall of eyeball
cochlea snail-shaped coiled tube with t fluid filled chambers (s. vestibuli, s. media, s. tympani)
otolith organs detect changes in head tilt
hair cells receptors embedded in gelatinous substance on which sit calcium carbonate crystals
semi-circular canals detect angular ac/de-celeration; 3 looped canals filled with potassium rich endolymph
olfactory bulb recieves input from smell receptors in nasal cavity; important for exchange with rest of Lim. system - responsible for emo-mem-evoking capacity of smell
nociceptors free nerve endings that respond to pain and itch
thermoceptors free nerve endings that respond to change in temp
encapsulated nerve endings responds to TOUCH and PROPIOCEPTION (internal muscle and organ movement)
cranial nerves nerves that emerge directly from the brain stem in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord
neuro-muscular junction where neurons release NT that depolarizes muscle fiber cells >> contraction
striate skeletal and facial muscles; band of parallel fibers
meninges support structure between brain and skull; 3 layers :dura, arachnoid, pia
ventricles hallow, interconnected cavities in brain, produces CSF
brainstem structures along the center most sectionf bran: medulla, pons, midbrain (tectum, tegmentum), thalamus, and hypothalamu
raphe nuclei part of pons, involved in sleep; releases serotonin
reticular formation network of cells moving through hind and mid brain; involved in arousal
dorsal/ventral root part of the spinal chord through which sensory info enters vs through which motor info exits
Bell-magendi law 'law' governing dorsal/ventral info flow
hindbrain medulla, pons, cerebellum
medulla control vital relfexes (breathing, heartrate, vomitting..); includes the cochlear nucleus and superior olive (auditory pathway)
pons relays info between cortex and cerebellum and brain and spinal chord; includes Locus Coerucleus that is in charge of PGO waves (sleep cycles)
cerebellum "little brain"; organizes sensory info that guides movement, modified by learning; critical in timing of actions and shifting of ; in cerebellar cortex, Parallel fibers like wires along long rows of "telephone poles" called Purkinje Cells
midbrain central structures above hindbrain; tectum and tegmentum
tectum part of SENSORY pathway to brain; consist of SUPERIOR COLLICULUS (vision/blindsight) and INFERiOR COLLICULUS (audition)
tegmentum major MOTOR pathway; includes RED NUCLEUS and SUBSTANTIA NIGRA w/ dopaminergic neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease
periaquaductal gray area (PAG) midbrain area that is the source of blocking pain info that enters brain
substansia nigra midbrain structure whose dopaminergic axons synapse in Basal Ganglia
red nucleus cortico spinal pathway stops at this midbrain structure on way from cortex to medulla and chord
thalamus primary source of input to cerebral cortex; all sensory systems (except olfaction) have nuclei here. (MGN, LGN, VPN)
limbic system involved in motivational and emotional behavior; includes hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus, hypothalamus...
Hypothalamus oversees the 4Fs & temp and clock via neural and hormonal connections to esp the ANS; controls endrocrine (harmone) system via affect on PITUITARY GLAND
hippocampus important in forming new memories
amygdala important in emotional expression; stimulation of particular regions lead to typical reaction...
cingulate gyrus "limbic cortex"; involved with =/- emotions, recieves from decision making frontal cortex..
basal ganglia caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus; involved in control of movement, planned/sequential behaviors, and mediated by memory or emotions
basal forebrain arousal, attention... recieves from hypothalamus and basal ganglia --> projects to cortex releasing excitatory ACh
magnification in cortex, disproportionate enlargement of the rep. of a sensory area of low convergence
topological type of map that preserves spatial relationships
across fiber coding when a stimulus is coded through the RATIO of response across multiple cells
convergence when multiple pre-synaptic cells all communicate to one post-synaptic cell
divergence when one presynaptic cell communicates to many post-synaptic cells
columnar organization in cortex, six layers of cells; all cells within a given column of perceptual cortex show same "preferred stimulus"
occipital lobe visual cortex, striate cortex, v2, v4, dorsal stream, ventral stream
striate cortex V1, where simple cells are- gives its best responses to lines of particular orientation
v2 where complex cells give best response to moving lines of particular orientation
ventral stream parvocellular pathway, who/what
dorsal stream magnocellular pathway/ where/how
occipital lobe lobe of cortex, posterior, primarily involved in visual processing, including V1
temporal lobe lobe of cortex, lateral, primarily involved in auditory processing (A1 and wernickes) and higher visual (IT)
parietal lobe lobe of the cortex posterior to the central sulcus, primarily involved in somatosensory and visio-spatial maps
frontal lobe lobe of the cortex anterior central sulcus, motor control including Broca's Area, and in prefrontal area, strategy and control
proliferation the production of new cells
migration the movement of cells from their place of origin to their later position
differentiation the process for migrating neurons to vary in structure and function (cell-autonomous diff. vs induction)
synaptogenesis developing junctions between cells
fire together- wire together co-activated cells tend to be strengthened in the connectivity and out-compete neighboring cells
dendritic branching new outgrowths on, or subdividing of, the process that recieve NT, in response to an enriched environment, learning, etc
neurotrophins chemicals that attract/repel and promote survival and activity of neurons
stem cells ectodermal cells that line the inside of the neural tube (the ventricular zone)
corpus callosum bundle of axons communicating between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
optic chiasm A point near the thalamus and hypothalamus at which portions of each optic nerve cross.
parvo-cellular pathway visual pathway specialized for color and detail, that "flows" along bottom of cortex
magno-cellular pathway visual pathway specialized for motion and localization, "flows" along top part of cortex
dorso-lateral tract where sensory info goes in spinal chord
ventro-medial tract where motor info goes out spinal chord
retino-hypothalamic path path of optic nerve collateral that connects special visual receptors in eyes directly to clock
crossover the crossing over of info between right and left lobes of brain
dendrites processes (branches) of a neuron that recieves the incoming message
axon end of neuron that releases the outgoing messages
concentration gradient difference in the amount of a given chemical outside/inside a cell
electrical gradient a difference in charge outside/inside a cell
resting potential (-70mV) difference in charge o/i of a polarized cell ready to fire
sodium/potassium pump energy requiring pump that helps restore membrane potential after cell fires
hypo-polarization more difference (in charge) between inside and outside of cell
hyper-polarization less difference between inside and outside of cell
depolarization change in a cell's membrane potential, making it more positive, or less negative.
actional potential a sequence of depolarization that moves along an axon, resulting in the all or nothing release of NT
refractory period period following an actionl potential during which the cell cannot fire
graded potential a greater or lesser change in the polarity of a neuron that results in a greater or lesser release of NT
glial cells cells in the NS responsible for support, feeding, recycling, development, etc
myelination glial cells wrapping around sections of an axon to insulate it and speed its info transmission
ionic conduction propagation of info down an axon by way of chemical gates opening and closing
electrical conduction propagation of info down an axon by way flow of electron
saltatory conduction "jumping" electrical conduction that occurs in myelinated axons
spontaneous activity graded potentials that rlease variable amounts of NT
interneurons A nerve cell found entirely within the central nervous system that acts as a link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
pre-synaptic cell the cell that releases the NT
post-synaptic cell the cell that receives the NT
synaptic cleft the gap between cells across which NT passively floats
vesicles of NT/exocytosis packets of NT released by a neuron; the release of NT into cleft via its packet opening at a fusion pore in the cell's membrane
receptor sites area, usually on a dendrite, that ins specialized for the attachment of NT
ionotropic effects when NT has a direct effect on ion channels in post-synaptic cells
metabotropic effects when NT has an indirect effect via internal metabolic processes
reuptake process by which NTs or their components re-enter the presynaptic cell for re-use
autoreceptors sites on presynaptic terminal that reacts to that cells own NT, usually acting to turn off/down that cells further NT release
EPSP an increase in a cells likelihood of releasing neurotransmitter
IPSP a decrease in a cell's likelihood of releasing NT
Axo-axonal relating to or being a synapse between an axon of one neuron and an axon of another
K+,Na+,Ca++,Cl-,Mg++ 4 key elements in neural function, 3 postive ions and 1 negative
Receptive field sensory neuron is a region of space in which the presence of a stimulus will alter the firing of that neuron
lateral inhibition (bidirectional, unidirectional) exaggerates differences
across fiber coding- selective adaptation RATIO of activity across multiple receptor types
hebbian cell assemblies fire together ,wire together
neurotransmitters chemicals that neurons release that impact nearby neurons
neuromodulators chemicals that diffuse over long distances, affecting many cells, not necessarily trigggering firing but altering likelihood of a neuron
hormones chemicals found in the bloodstream
agonism the increased effect of a NT
antagonism the decreased effect of a NT
glutamate (AMPA & NMDA) crucial for long term potentiation; released by reticular formation; most common excitatory NT in CNS
GABA Inhibitory NT, admits Cl- into cells, whose agonists are used to combat anxiety;
ACh (acetycholine) primary NT exiting CNS; released by reticular formation to alert brain; released by effector neurons to contract muscles
Serotonin (5HT) low turnover associated with impulsiveness, agression and depression; released by raphe nuclei- high at the end of REM
turnover (5-HIAA) reuptake and resynthesis,as determined by levels of metabolite 5-HIAA in blood
Dopamine released by nucleus accumbens in response to sexual stimulation
Norepinepherine (NE) released by locus coerucleus; absent during dreams
Epinepherine/Adrenalin (E) NT during fight or fight
Endorphins peptide with opiate liek effect; released by PAG
Substance P released by pain receptors and others cells in pain pathway
Melatonin produced by pineal gland to aid sleep
Androgens (testosterone, androstenedione) male hormone
Estrogens (estradiol) female hormone
Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone released by the hypothalamus via blood vessel to the anterior pituary gland to produce the gonadotrophin hormone that facillitates puberty
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)& Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) two gonadotropic homrones that stimulate development and behavior in both genders
Oxytocin hormone released by posterior pituitary at time of orgasm
prolactin hormone released by anterior pituitary for refractory period in Males and milk production in Females
cortisol stress hormone
tetes-determining factor (TDF) enzyme produced by "switch" on male chromosome that leads to the development of gender
Apha-Feto protein chemical in fetal blood that prevents mother's hormones from entering fetal cells and masculinizing fetus
pituitary gland the "master" gland
pineal gland gland that produces a harmone that impacts on hypothalamux to increase sleepiness
adrenal gland produces adrenaline and the androgen androstenedione (for hair growth)
phineas gage patient who had damage done to his prefrontal cortex/amygdala
H.M. famous epilepsy patient had hippocampus, amygdala, & some temporal cortex removed.. suffered anterograde amnesia
Classical conditioning developed association between stimul, esp involving an unconditioned response
lateralization dominance of one hemisphere of cerebral cortex over the other for a particular function
brocas aphasia deficits in producing or comprhending grammatical speech; subjects are aware of and highly frustrated by deficits. Symptoms include articulation difficulties, agrammatism, and anomia
wernickes aphasia deficits in the comprehension and production of meaningful speech; subjects are UNAWARE of deficits; symptoms include fluent articulation, anomia, nonsensical speech, & incomprehension
conduction aphasia damage to arcuate fasiculus (bundle of axons forming reciprocal connections between B's A and W's A); symptoms include meaningful, fluent speech, fairly good comprehension, but POOR REPETITION
long term potentiation semi-permanent structural and connectivity changes, via variety of mechanisms (post-synaptic, pre-synaptic, genetics, neurogenesis)
declarative memory Episodic (personal history), semantic/associative (facts) memory that involves the hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus
procedural memory motor skills, HOW to do things memory that involves the cerebellum and striatum
spatial memory recall of specific locations, spatial judgments of familiarity that involves the hippocampus
cognitive map map of environment that hippocampus develops (spatial memory)
anterograde amnesia inability to form new memories
penfield map name of topological map of body surface found there
mirror cells cells in premotor cortex that respond to image of self, or other, performing familar manual task
blood-brain barrier semi-permeable barrier, controls which chemicals enter brain, created by closing gaps between capillaries' endothelial cells
REM rapid eye movement; stage of sleep associated with dream
Stage 1 theta activity
Stage 2 mostly theta activity; but with many spindles and K complexes
Stage 3 delta activity in less than 50% of this stage(low freq, higher voltage, very synchronized)
Stage 4 delta activity in more than 50% of this stage(low freq, higher voltage, very synchronized)
Slow wave sleep another term for sleep 3&4: its low freq. EEG and highly synchronized activity
EEG used to characterize brain activity during differnt states of wakefulness/sleep
Reflexes most involve spinal chord circuits; stretch, golgi, pain withdrawal, scratch, infant
Prospagnosia face-blindness, is when you are unable to recognize other humans by their faces in spite of having good eye sight.
Parkinson's Disease result of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain.
Urbach-Weith Disease degenerative calcium buildup in amygdala that results in deficits in interpretting facial expressions
Epilepsy caused by abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain
LIP lateral interPositus nucleus of cerebellum.. damage to this area prevents one from learning procedures?
Created by: mmdiep