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Digestive System

TermDefinition
Digestive System Carries out digestion which is the process of breaking down food in the body into a form which can be absorbed and used or excreted
Mouth Point of entry for food into the digestive system; first site of the reduction of food size; adds the first bodily fluids to the bolus; composed of the teeth and tongue
Saliva Functions to moisten food
Hydrolysis Decomposes food by placing water molecules between chemical bonds
Amylase Enzyme in saliva which catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules
Lysozyme Enzyme in saliva which breaks down the polysaccharide walls of many kinds of bacteria thus providing protection against infection
Teeth Break down larger particles of food into smaller pieces through mechanical digestion
Incisors Used for cutting food
Canines Used for cutting and tearing food
Premolars Used for grinding food
Molars Used for grinding food
Tongue Muscle organ used to maneuver food within the mouth by collecting food and moving it to the back of the mouth when swallowing
Pharynx Connects the mouth and esophagus; contains a flap of connective tissue which closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or aspiration
Epiglottis Protective flap which closes over the trachea when food is swallowed
Esophagus Muscular tube connecting the pharynx and the stomach; moves food from the pharynx to the stomach by a process called peristalsis
Peristalsis Waves of involuntary muscle contractions moving food through a tube-shaped organ
Stomach J-shaped hollow muscular organ which stores food which has been eaten
Chyme Mixture of gastric juices and food
Cardia (Gastroesophageal Region) entrance into the stomach
Fundus Blind portion of the stomach
Body Location of the gastric pits and secretory cells
Pylorus Area around the pyloric sphincter leading into the small intestine
Mucosa Innermost layer of the stomach which consists of epithelium and a thin layer of smooth muscle
Submucosa Layer of the stomach made of fibrous connective tissue and the Meissner's plexus
Muscularis externa Layer of the stomach which consists of three layers of smooth muscle
Serosa Outermost layer of the stomach made up of layers of connective tissue
Mucus Lubricates and protects the stomach from harsh acidic conditions
Hydrochloric Acid Functions to make food in the stomach acidic and activates pepsin
Pepsin Works with hydrochloric acid to break down proteins
Pancreas Produces hormones which regulate blood sugars; creates enzymes which aid in the breakdown of carbohydrates
Liver Produces bile which is essential for the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine; receives the nutrients which have been absorbed in the small intestine
Bile Yellow-brown liquid mixture of salts and lipids which breaks down the lipids in the digestive system into a fluid mixture
Gallbladder Stores bile until the body needs it for digestion
Small Intestine Breaks down the chyme to absorb vitamins
Duodenum Begins the small intestine and is where most chemical digestion takes place
Jejunum Absorbs carbohydrates and proteins and is covered in villi
Villi Small finger like projections which aid in absorption
Ileum Absorbs lipids and bile and is covered in villi and microvilli
Large Intestine Removes water from the chyme and houses many bacteria
Appendix Tubular organ connected to the large intestine which has no known purpose
Cecum Big pouch which receives waste material from the small intestine
Colon Largest portion of the large intestine; extracts water from feces
Rectum Acts as a temporary storage facility for feces
Anus Used to expel feces from the body
Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix due to a blockage in the appendix
Cirrhosis Scarring of the liver
Colorectal cancer Colon cancer or bowel cancer
Gallstones Crystalline bodies formed by normal or abnormal bile components
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
Obesity Condition where the natural energy reserve is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality
Ulcers Areas of the gastrointestinal tract which are acidic
Created by: nduke2