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biology ch. 6 terms

autotroph an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
photosynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
heterotroph an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials
light reaction initial reactions in photosynthesis, triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems I and II and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP through chemiosm
thylakoid a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
granum a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast
stroma in plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast
pigment a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color
chlorophyll a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates
caretenoid a class of pigments that are present mostly in plants and that aid in photosynthesis
photosystem in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis
primary electron acceptor the acceptor of the electrons lost from chlorophyll a is a molecule in the thylakoid membrane
electron transport chain a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
chemiosmosis in chloroplasts and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
calvin cycle a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP
carbon fixation the process in which a substance that contains carbon, such as plant materials, is reduced into a carbon film
stomata small pores that rapidly lose water to the air through small pores under hot and dry conditions. located under the leaves
c4 pathway a carbon-fixing process in which carbon dioxide is bound to a compound to form a four-carbon intermediate
CAM pathway a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which carbon dioxide is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Created by: eifertmaddy15