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OCNG Ch. 6-10

plane of ecliptic line that connects all points of earth's orbit around sun
seasons caused by tilt of earths axis
vernal equinox march 21; spring; sun directly over equator; equal length of day & night; AKA spring equinox in NH
summer solstice june 21; sun is at most northerly position directly overhead of tropic of cancer; sun appears to pause (longer day) before beginning its next six month cycle
tropic of cancer 23.5 N
autumnal equinox september 23; sun is directly over equator again
winter solstice december 22; sun directly overhead of tropic of capricorn;
suns declination angular distance from equator (either 23.5N or 23.5S = tropics)
tropics receive more annual sunlight than poles
albedo percentage of radiation that is reflected back to space depending on the type of material----sea ice covered by snow has high albedo while soil, rock, vegetation, etc. does not
avg earth surface albedo 30%
ocean reflects more radiation at high latitudes
earths atmo N is 78% & O is 21%
troposphere lowermost portion of atmo; 12km/7mi; where weather is formed; lower T as altitude rises
warm air less dense bc heat makes molecules expand so rises
cold air more dense so sinks
convection cell warm air rises; cold air sinks
warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air bc its molecules are moving faster & can interact w the water vapor
addition of water vapor decreases the density of air
water vapor has lower density than air; humid air is LESS DENSE than dry air
moving air wind = ALWAYS FROM HIGH P TO LOW P
NH coriolis effect water drains CCW
SH coriolis effect water drains CW
coriolis effect changes path of moving object
coriolis effect dir in NH right (perspective)
coriolis effect dir in SH left (perspective)
coriolis is an effect of earth rotation towards E----the difference in earths rotation SPEED at different latitudes
earths rotational speed faster closest to equator
coriolis effect max poles
coriolis effect nonexistant equator
hadley cell cold & warm air circulation between 0-30N & 0-30S
ferrel cell cold & warm air circulation betw. 30N-60N & 30S-60S
polar cell cold & warm air circulation above 60N-90N and above 60S-90S
subtropical highs descending cold air; areas of high pressure (dry & clear skies)
polar highs descending cold air; areas of high pressure (dry & clear skies)
equatorial low rising warm air; areas of low pressure (cloudy & rainy bc warm air cools and can't hold on to water vapor)
subpolar low rising warm air; areas of low pressure (cloudy & rainy bc warm air cools and can't hold on to water vapor)
trade winds air blown from subtropical highs to equatorial lows
NE trade winds NH so blow to the right
SE trade winds SH so blow to the left
doldrums boundary betw. the two trade winds at equator ------intertropical convergence zone (calm waters)
horse latitudes boundaries betw. trade winds and prevailing westerlies (light winds + dry and fair)
polar front boundaries betw. prevailing westerlies and polar regions (cloudy and rainy)
monsoon winds Asian seasonal shifts in atmospheric pressure (winter--high; summer---low)
equatorial 0-5 degrees; doldrums boundary; low P; light winds; cloudy & rainy; hurricanes
5-30 degrees trade winds wind belt; strong steady winds from E (NE & SE)
30 degrees horse latitudes boundaries; high P; light winds; dry & clear; major deserts
30-60 degrees prevailing westerlies wind belt; from W; brings storm that influence U.S weather
60 polar front boundaries; low P; variable winds; stormy & cloudy yearound
60-90 polar easterlies wind belt; cold dry winds from E
poles 90 degrees; polar high P boundary; variable winds; clear, dry, cold, desert regions, minimal rain
coriolis force greatest at the poles
coriolis force almost non existent at the equator
why lots of deserts at 30S and 30N latitudes? bc subtropical dry air
as you increase in elevation atmospheric pressure decreases
cool dense air sinks, high surface pressure
warm moist air rises, low surface pressure
coriolis effect moves path of moving object in the NH towards the R
coriolis effect moves path of moving object in the SH towards the L
earth rotates towards the east
there are diff _____ at diff ________ bc of earths rotation speeds ; latitudes (faster at equator & slower at poles)
winds---air always moves from high pressure to low pressure
cyclonic flow in low pressure NH CCW
cyclonic flow in low pressure SH CW
anticyclonic flow in high pressure NH CW
anticyclonic flow in high pressure SH CCW
anticyclonic high pressure
cyclonic low pressure
low pressure rising air (warm)
high pressure sinking air (cold)
tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons large rotating makes of low pressure; classified by max. speed of wind sustained
conditions needed for a hurricane 25C/77F (warm water needed for water vapor to atmo via evaporation); warm moist air to supply vast amounts of latent heat; coriolis effect gives rotation to storm
storm surge increase in shoreline sea level
open ocean climate is sort of // to latitude lines (warmer at center and colder at sides) w exception of currents [england at high latitude but not as cold]
sea ice forms directly from seawater; needle-like crystals become slush--->slush becomes pancake ice--->pancake ices form ice floes
iceberg formation break off from glaciers
ocean currents masses of water that flow from one place to another
surface currents wind driven; primarily horizontal direction; only 10% of ocean water; occur above pycnocline; slower than corresponding wind bc friction of wind & ocean; generally follow wind belts pattern
deep currents driven by density differences caused by diff salinity & temperature (low T & high salinity = high density); vertical & horizontal motions
surface currents: gyres large circular loops of moving water driven by major wind belts
surface currents: subgyres centered around 30 degree latitude; bounded by equatorial current; western, northern, southern, and eastern boundary currents
surface currents: ekman spiral balance betw. friction and coriolis effect; direction & flow of surface waters at diff depths; direction of spiral is PERPENDICULAR to wind
surface currents: ekman transport avg. movement of surface waters, 90 degrees to R in NH; 90 degrees to L in SH
surface currents: top of hill water displaced toward west bc of earths rotation
surface currents: western boundary currents get intensified in both hemispheres (bc coriolis effect) 1. faster 2. narrower 3. warmer 4. deeper
surface currents: easter boundary currents are the opposite of western boundary currents 1. cold 2. shallow 3. slow 4. wide
upwelling vertical movement of cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface (high productivity of algae)
downwelling vertical movement of surface water downward in the water column
diverging surface water upwelling (equator)
equatorial upwelling divergence of currents at equator generates upwelling and high productivity
converging surface water downwelling of surface water; surface waters move towards each other and pile up downward; low productivity
coastal upwelling ekman transport moves surface water offshore & replaces w cool nutrient-rich water (W. US San Francisco cool temperatures)
coastal downwelling ekman transport moves surface water towards shore; water piles up moves downward in water column
halocline difference in salinity as depth increases
pycnocline difference in density as depth increases
other causes of upwelling 1. offshore winds 2. seafloor obstructions 3. coastal geometry change 4. lack of pycnocline (high lat. oceans---cold)
antarctic circulation: antarctic circumpolar curent AKA WEST WIND DRIFT; driven by prevailing westerly winds
antarctic circulation: easterly wind drift driven by polar easterlies, creates surface diverging w opposite antarctic circumpolar current
antarctic circulation: antarctic divergence abundant marine life
atlantic circulation: gulf stream western boundary current that carries warm water from topics to high latitudes; responsible for mild temp in europe (england)
walker circulation cell cold higher pressure in E pacific (peru); SE winds; thermocline deeper in W side (australia)
el niño warm phase; disruption in walker circulation cell; downwelling; warm pool spreads more eastward to where cooler waters were; weaker trade winds
la niña cool phase; stronger upwelling in E; cooler than normal seawater; stronger trade winds
deep-water masses antarctic bottom water, north atlantic deep water, antarctic intermediate water; cold surface water sinks and moves equatorward
how are waves generated 1. wind
air-ocean interference ocean waves
water-water interference internal waves
wave movement energy in motion---waves transmit energy
crest high point of wave
trough low point of wave
the deeper the water, the ______ the wave faster
capillary waves ripples; wind generated on surface
gravity waves more E transferred to ocean, increasing wave E; wave height increases more than length; breaking waves
factors affecting wind E fetch, duration wind blows over on one direction, wind speed
fetch distance over which wind blows
swell free ocean wave generated by wind that gets transported to surf zone w/o losing much E
shoaling water water gradually getting shallower
surf zone where waves break near shore
when steepness >1/7 wave breaks
as wave approaches shallower water wavelength decreases, speed decreases, steepness increases, height increases
waves rarely approach shore at 90 degrees rather they're angled
on shore, wave E is unevenly distributed & less
headlands better for surfing; more wave E released bc waves CONVERGE
bays wave E diverges; E more dissipated vs headlands
splash waves ~tsunami caused by meteorite impact
tides caused by combination of each, moon, and sun gravity & motion
zenith greatest force of gravity; closest to moon
nadir lowest force of gravity; furthest from moon
direction of attraction between earth and moon is at an angle causing force to be slightly diff everywhere
lunar day 24 hr 50 min
high tides are _________ apart 12 hrs 25 min
flood tide water moves toward shore
ebb tide water moves away from shore
tidal period time between high tides
tidal range difference betw, high and low tides
monthly tidal cycle 29.5 days (time it takes moon to complete orbit around earth)
syzygy moon, earth, and sun aligned
quadrature moon in first or third quarter phase
spring tides new or full moon; tidal range greatest; syzygy
neap tides quarter moons; tidal range lowest; quadrature
declination angular distance of the moon or sun above or below earths equator
perigee tidal range greatest; moon closest to earth
apogee tidal range least; moon furthest from earth
perigee and apogee cycle 27.5 days
perihelion earth closest to sun; Winter in NH
aphelion earth furthest from sun; Summer in NH
amphidromic point no tidal range; crests & troughs of tides rotate around it
cotidal lines connects simultaneous high tide points
tide wave rotates every 12 hrs
in theory, most areas should experience __ ___________ & __ ____________ 2 high tides & 2 low tides of unequal heights during a lunar day ( but ocean basin diff in shape, size, and depth modify this)
diurnal 1 high & 1 low tide per day; common in inland seas (GULF OF MEXICO)
semidiurnal 2 high & 2 low tides; tidal range same
mixed 2 high & 2 low tides; tidal range different (MOST COMMON)
high slack water peak of each high tide w no current motion
low slack water peak of each low tide w no current motion
coastline boundary betw. coast and shore
backshore above high tide shoreline; only has water when theres a storm
foreshore exposed in low tide; submerged in hight tide
nearshore extends seaward from low tide shoreline; never exposed; waves touch bottom
offshore beyond low tide breakers; waves rarely touch bottom
beach above shoreline called recreational beach
wave cut beach flat wave-eroded surface
berm dry, gently sloping elevated beach margin at feet of dunes or cliffs
beach face wet sloping surface extending from berm to low tide shoreline (submerged)
longshore bar sand bars // to coast (not always present; break approaching waves)
longshore trough separates longshore bar from beach face
sand forms from sand & mud from rivers, local material, boulders from local cliffs, coral reef material (tropical)
swash water rushes up to beach
backwash water drains back to beach
what determines if sand is eroded or deposited? whether backwash or swash dominates
light wave activity swash soaks beach; wide well-dev. berm (pleasant)
heavy wave activity backwash; eroded sand accumulates in longshore bar
summertime beach milder storms; light wave activity; swash doms.; no longshore bars; wide sandy berm; deposited; steep beach
wintertime beach stormy weather; heavy wave activity; narrower beach; longshore bars present; backwash; eroded; flat beach
longshore current transports sand along beach in zigzag movement
longshore drift longshore current but occurs in surf zone
tombolo sand bar that connects an island to the mainland
spit lil piece of land stretching from mainland into lagoon but not completely enclosing to make a lagoon
deltas rivers deposit into oceans
hard stabilization structures built to decrease coastal erosion & interfere w sand movement (may actually increase wave erosion) 1. jetties 2. seawalls 3. groin & groin fields
3 major alt. to hard stabilization 1. construction restrictions near shorelines 2. beach (sand) replenishes 3. relocation of structures rather than protection
sea level can change by change in level of land or sea or both
marine terraces flat platforms backed by cliffs where wave-cut beach is exposed
faster seafloor spreading = rising sea level
contracts cooler water
expands warmer water
eustatic sea level change WORLDWIDE; faster seafloor spreading, formation or melting of glaciers, thermal expansion or contraction of water
changing sea level isostatic adjustment (unloading heavy load); tectonic movements (uplift or subsidence-----W coast is uplifting)
sea breeze sea to land---DAY
land breeze land to ocean---NIGHT
% marine debris from land 80%
Standard lab bioassay: concentration of pollutant that causes 50% mortality among test organisms
oil spills are often from transportation accidents
petroleum made of hydrocarbons, can biodegrade, has toxic components
Bioremediation: using bacteria and fungi to biodegrade oil
about _____ hurricanes occur each year 100
hurricanes are classified w ________ kmph 120
wind shear strong wind can ventilate heat away from dev. hurricane
hurricanes raise sea level temporarily
proxigean tides perigee + spring tides (unusually high tides)
sand moves ______ to beach perpendicular
Created by: daisy98