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OU Pharm Antibiotics

Module 4 Antibiotic Names and Classes from Objectives

QuestionAnswer
Sulfamethoxazole Sulfonamides, bacteriostatic, antimetabolite, UTI and Nocardiosis.
Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) Sulfonamide combo, bacteriostatic, UTI and otitis media
Penicillin G Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Nafcillin Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Oxacillin Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Ampicillin/Sulbactam (Unasyn) Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Ticacillin/clavulanic acid (Timentin) Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Piperacillin/tazobactam(Zosyn) Penicillins, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, strep pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis.
Cefazolin (Ancef) Cephalosporin 1st generation, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, surgical prophylaxis. Destroyed by beta-lactamases (cephalosporinases)
Cefotetan (Cefotan) Cephalosporin 2nd generation, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, surgical prophylaxis (1st Generation used more often). Less sensitive to destruction by beta-lactamases (cephalosporinases) better activity against gram - than 1st generation,
Cefepime (Maxipime) Cephalosporin 4th generation, bactericidal, weaken cell wall, CSF infection. Highly resistant to destruction by beta-lactamases (cephalosporinases).Healthcare and hospital associated pneumonias.
Imipenem (Primaxin) Carbapenems, bactericidal, weaken cell wall. Bone, joint, skin, and soft tissue (complicated body cavity infections).
Vancomycin Vancomycin, bactericidal, cell wall destroyed, MRSA and pts with penicillin allergies. ***Watch for renal damage.
Doxycycline Tetracycline, bacteriostatic, inhibit protein synthesis. Lyme's disease, Rickettsia, syphilis.
Erythromycin macrolides, can be both bactericidal and bacteriostatic,inhibit protein synthesis. strep infection, upper respiratory infection, Spirochetes and STD's.
Azithromycin aka "Z-pack" erythromycin (macrolides), can be both bactericidal and bacteriostatic,inhibit protein synthesis. Acute bronchitis, pneumonia, & pink eye.
Clarithromycin erythromycin (macrolides), can be both bactericidal and bacteriostatic,inhibit protein synthesis. Strep throat & pneumonia.
ketolide (telethromycin) ketolides, bateriostatic and can be bactericidal, inhibit protein synthesis. Mild to moderate upper respiratory infections.
ketolide (telethromycin) ketolides, bateriostatic and can be bactericidal, inhibit protein synthesis. Mild to moderate upper respiratory infections.
Clindamycin (cleocin) Bacteriostatic. Respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and peritonitis.
Linezolid (Zyvox) Oxazolidinones. Inhibits protein synthesis. VRE and MRSA (limiting to those will help delay emergence of resistance)
Chloramphenicol (chloromycetin) Primarily bacteriostatic (can also be bactericidal against specific bugs). Used judiciously when other antibiotics don't work. Often used with other abx. Penicillin resistant bacterial meningitis and VRE. Gray's syndrome in infants and children.
Gentamycin Aminoglycosides, bactericidal, inhibits protein synthesis. psuedomonas and E-coli.
Amikacin Aminoglycosides, bactericidal, inhibits protein synthesis. psuedomonas and E-coli.
Tobramycin Aminoglycosides, bactericidal, inhibits protein synthesis. psuedomonas and E-coli.
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Flouroquinolones, inhibit bacterial synthesis of DNA and RNA or disrupt DNA function. Cellulitis, kidney infection, UTI, and Anthrax.
Metronidazole (Flagyl) Flagyl, bactericidal. C-difficile, H-pylori. Watch for CNS effects.
Rifampin (Rifacin) Bactericidal, inhibits bacterial synthesis of DNA and RNA or disrupts RNA function. Tuberculosis
Aztreonam (Azactam) Monobactam, bacteriocidal, inhibits protein synthesis. Only active against gram negative (E Coli, Klebsiella, etc)
Fosfomycin (Monurol) Bactericidal, weakens cell wall, single dose therapy for uncomplicated UTI in women.
Tigecycline  Glycylcycline, glycycline (derivative of tetracycline class),bacteriostatic, inhibits protein synthesis.designed to overcome drug-resistance, broad spectrum including many drug resistant strains BUT is associated with increased mortality.
Dalfopristin/Quinupristin  Combination Antibiotic. Streptogramins. Inhibit protein synthesis. (used separately are bacteriostatic - used together like this and they become bactericidal). Used for VRE. ***Hepatotoxicity is a BIG CONCERN.
Pleuromutilin Inhibits protein synthesis. Currently topical application and is highly resistant to becoming drug resistant. (long hx in vet medicine without resistance)
Monoxycarbolic Acid (mupirocin) Bacteriostatic at low concentrations and bacteriostatic at high concentrations. Used topically, effective against gram positive bacteria. Treats impetigo.
Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Fluoroquinolones, inhibit bacterial synthesis of DNA and RNA or disrupt DNA function. Pneumonia, Kidney infection, prostatitis. Watch for CNS
Daptomycin Cyclic lipopeptides. Bactericidal. Nearly all gram + bacteria including MRSA.
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 3rd Generation Cephalosporin, more active against gram - bacteria than 1st or 2nd generation. Clinically effective concentrations in CSF. Drug of choice for some specific meningitis. Highly resistant to beta lactamases.
***5th generation Cephalosporin Similar to 3rd generation but has "activity" against MRSA - unlike generations 1-4 that cannot be used to treat MRSA. Highly resistant to destruction by beta-lactamases (cephalosporinases)
Created by: rnlawes