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Micro Test 2

Test 2 Ch. 6-10

QuestionAnswer
The most stable environment/solution for cells exists in what type of solution? Isotonic
For most microbes, environmental factors fundamentally affect the function of what structure? Metabolic Enzymes
What form of oxygen is not toxic to microorganisms? O2
What term is defined as an interrelationship between two or more free-living organisms that is beneficial to both but not necessary for the survival of either Synergism
What enzymes are always present in a cell at relatively constant amounts? Constitutive enzymes
What is the process by which ATP is formed through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that Occur during the final phase of respiration Oxidative phosphorylation
What term is defined as a certain segment of DNA that contains the necessary code to make a Protein or RNA molecule? Gene
Why is DNA replication said to be semiconservative The products of replication are two double helices, each of which contains one parent and one daughter strand
The enzymes required for the formation of a peptide bond between adjoining amino acids in a proteinare supplied by what structure? Large ribosomal subunit
10. Which molecule reacts with acetyl CoA, therefore starting the TCA cycle? Oxaloacetic acid
11. What is viral- induced damage to a cell that alters its microscopic appearance Cytopathic Effect
12. What is viewed as a nearly perfect system for viral propagation? Bird Embryos
13. What type of virus has been approved by the department of Agriculture to be sprayed on livestock to prevent food infection? Bacteriophages
What is the causative agent of “Mad Cow Disease”? Prions
Substances required by living organisms in relatively large quanities and which play principle roles in cell structure and metabolism are known as what? Macronutrients
Nitrogen is required for the production of what category of molecules? Nucleotides
Which Organism is an example of a photoautotroph? Algea
What Nutritional category of microorganisms plays an important part in recycling inorganic nutrients? Chemoautotrophs
The principal energy- yielding reaction in animals, most protozoa and fungi and aerobic bacteria is known as what? Aerobic resporation
The earth would gradually fill-up with organic material, and nutrients would not be recycled if it were not for what group of organism – Saprobes
What are the characteristics of viruses? Prokaryotes
What do you refer to as the combination of a viral nucleic acid plus the viral capsid? Nucleocapsid
An enveloped virus may acquire its envelope from what of the host cell? Golgi apparatus
What are molecules that protrude from the viral envelopes and are essential for attachment? Spikes
What type of virus has a polyhedral head, a helical tail, and fibers for host cell attachment? Bacteriophages
What step in the viral multiplication cycle is defined as the copying and expression of the viral genome by the host’s synthetic equipment? Replication
The second step in the viral infective process? Penetration
Adsorption of the bacteriophage occurs when molecule on the tail fibers bind to what component on the host cell? Receptors
The membrane receptors that animal viruses typically attach to are actually what? Glycoproteins
What type of organic substance are most co enzymes? Vitamins
Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template.
Mammalian Viruses capable of initiating tumors are called Oncoviruses
The second step in the viral infective process Penetration
What are bacteria eating virus? isolated bacteriophages
Two life cycles of bacteriophages are Lytic and Lysogentic
What is the viral structure that is composed of nucleic acid and capsid Virus Head
The structural subunits that form the capsid are called Proteins (Protomers)
The projections or spikes of viral envelope are made of Peplomer (glycoprotein)
Which compounds enters the TCS cycle (Kreb Cycle) Acetyl coenzymes
What is the limitation in the scope of host an animal virus can infect? Host Range
What are the coding regions of eukaryotic mRNA molecules? Exons
Along with the ssRNA nucleic acid, retroviruses also contains what enzymes within the viral capsid? Reverse Transcriptase
Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the formation of DNA from RNA
Binding of virus to specific molecule on host cell Absorption- mediated by viron protiens
What is the fundamental unit of heredity responsible for a given trait Gene
Which RNS is responsible for carrying the genetic message from the nucleus to the cytoplasm mRNA
Know the “stop and start codons” during protein synthesis AUG (start) (Stop)UAG, UAA, UGA
What is the genetic make-up of an induvial organism- Genotype
The protein coat of a virus is called Capsid
What is the chemical nature of Prions Proteins
What is another term for biosynthesis Anabolism
Catabolism is a form of metabolism in which________ molecules are converted into _______molecules Large, small
What are the three major types of RNA RNA, mRNA, tRNA
Created by: 1287067777