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Microbiology Lecture

Exam chapters 9-12

Microbial Control sterilization, disinfection, decontamination/sanitation, and antisepsis/degermation
Sanitation destroys all microorganisms including viruses
Disinfection physical process to destroy vegetative pathogens but not endospores
Decontamination/Sanitation mechanically removes microorganism and debris to safe levels
Antisepsis/Degermation reduces microbes on human skin
Bactericide chemical that destroys bacteria but not endospores
Fungicide kills fungal spores
Virucide chemical that inactivates viruses, specially on living tissue
Sporicide agent that destroys endospores
Germicide/Microbicide kills microorganisms
Sepsis growth of microorganism in the blood and tissues
Asepsis practice prevents entry of infectious agents into sterile tissues
Aseptic Techniques practiced in healthcare
Antiseptics agents applied to exposed skin to prevent vegetative pathogens
Bacteristatic prevents growth of bacteria on tissues or objects
Fungistatic inhibits fungal growth
Microbistatic controls microbes in the body
Cell Wall chemical agents damage by blocking synthesis or digesting cell wall
Cytoplasmic Membrane agents interrupt synthesis of proteins, inhibits proteins from growth and metabolism, prevents mutation multiplication
Proteins agents denature protein, prevents protein interaction with chemical substrate
Boiling Water disinfection of materials for babies, food, utensils, bedding, and clothing from sick room
Pasteurization disinfection of beverages like milk, wine, beer, and other beverages
Steam Under Pressure autoclaving, pure steam to pressures greater than 1 atmosphere to achieve sterilization
Incineration intense heat reduces microbes and other substances to ashes and gas
Hot Air Oven dry heat sterilization for destruction of endospores
Desiccation dehydration at room temperature
Lyophilization freezing and drying to preserve microorganism longer
Radiation energy from atomic activities dispersed at high velocity through matter or space
Filtration effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids
Osmotic Pressure never a sterilizing technique
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy use of drugs to control infection
Chemotherapeutic Drug any chemical used in treatment or relief of a disease
Prophylaxis drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk
Antimicrobials all-inclusive term for antimicrobial drug, regardless of origin
Antibiotics naturally produced by microorganism that inhibit or destroy other microorganism
Semisynthetic Drug chemically modified in the lab after isolation from natural sources
Synthetic Drugs produced entirely by chemical reactions
Narrow Spectrum limited, targets a specific group
Broad Spectrum kills many different bacteria's
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration "MIC" smallest concentration (highest dilution) of drug that visibly inhibits growth
Therapeutic Index ranked drugs 1-10, compared.10-safe choice, the lower the number the more risky
Antimicrobial Drugs Goal inhibit virus replication
Excellent Selective Toxicity blocks synthesis of bacterial cell wall "ideal"
Drugs Toxic To Humans act upon infective agent and host cell "cell membrane"
Chemotherapy Goals identifying needs of a living cell and removing, disrupting, or interfering with requirements
Biofilms harder to target, other drugs used along wit antibiotics
Quinine principal malaria treatment
Anthelminthic Drug Therapy blocking reproduction does not affect adult worms
Antiviral Drug Therapy barring penetration, blocking transcription, and translation, preventing maturation
Drug Resistance change in microbes that can tolerate drug needing a higher dose
Intrinsic normal, naturally resistant
Reasons Of Resistancy plasma transfer or mutations
Resistance "R" Factors plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes, transferred through conjugation, transformation, or transduction
New Approaches using RNA interference, mimicking defense, and using bacteriophages
Probiotics to improve intestinal biota with live microorganism
Prebiotics nutrients that encourage growth of beneficial microbes
Fecal Transplants to re-colonize colon
Allergy heightened sensitivity to a drug, major problem
Biota normal microbial colonies on a healthy body
Super Infections when biota is destroyed and microbes double in numbers
Shotgun Approach using broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy for minor infections
Human Microbiome sum total of all microbes
Human Microbiome Project "HMP" research characteristics of microbes on living tissue
Intestinal Biota important for health and other diseases
Resident Biota destroyed by immune system before they colonize, not harmful
Microbial Antagonism resident biota is hostile to other microbes, unlikely to be displaced by incoming microbes
Pathogen microbe, parasitic relationship causing infection and disease
Infections Disease disruption of tissue or organ by microbes and their products
Pathogenicity organisms potential to cause infection or disease
True Pathogens capable of causing disease in healthy people with normal immune defenses
Opportunistic Pathogens cause disease when hot's defenses are compromised, rare, only in unique circumstances
Virulence anything a microbe has that gives it an advantage to cause disease
Portal Of Entry route microbe takes to enter
Exogenous outside source, another person
Endogenous microbes on my own body
Infectious Dose "ID" minimum number of microbes necessary to cause infection
Adhesion microbes attach to tissues, is a key step
Phagocytes main WBC engulfs and destroys pathogens
Antiphagocytic Factors helps pathogens avoid phagocytes
Leukocidins kill phagocytes outright
Exoenzymes enzymes secreted by microbes
Toxin secreted inside and sent outside cell
Exotoxins proteins that target a specific cell with deadly effects
Neurotoxins act on nervous system
Enterotoxins act on intestines
Hemolysis lyse red blood cells
Nephrotoxins damage the kidneys
Necrosis cell and tissue death
Sign objective evidence of disease
Symptom subjective evidence of disease
Syndrome disease identified by signs and symptoms
inflammation body defense process
Edema accumulation of fluid in afflicted tissue
Granulomas And Abscesses walled-off collections of inflammatory cells and microbes in tissue "WBC and microbes"
Lymphadenitis swollen lymph nodes
Leukocytosis increase in WBC levels
Leukopenia decrease in WBC levels
Septicemia microorganisms multiplying in large numbers in the blood
Bacteremia or Viremia bacteria or viruses present in blood, not multiplying
Portal Of Exit pathogen exit
Latency dormant microbes in certain chronic infectious diseases
Sequelae long-term or permanent damage to tissue or organs by infectious diseases
Incubation Period time from intimal contact with infectious agent to the appearance of symptoms
Prodromal Stage 1-2 day period when earliest notable symptoms of infection appear
Period Of Invasion infection multiplies at high levels, greatest toxicity, well established in tissues
Convalescent Period patient begins to respond to infection and symptoms decline
Reservoir primary habitat in natural world of a pathogen
Transmitter individual or object from which an infection is acquired
Carrier shelters pathogen without knowledge, spreads to others without notice, may not experience disease due to microbe
Zoonosis indigenous infection to animals but naturally transmissible to humans ex. rabies "zoo means animals"
Communicable/Infectious transmits infection from host to host
Contagious highly communicable, especially through direct contact
Noncommunicable person invaded by their own microbes
Asymptomatic, Subclinical, or Inapparent infections that go unnoticed
Horizontal Transfer from 1 person to another
Vertical Transfer from mother to offspring
Biting Vectors transmitted through infected saliva into the blood "mosquito"
Mechanical Vectors body parts infected by physical contact with a source of pathogens "house fly"
Health-Care Associated/Nosocomial Infections during hospital stay
Common Nosocomial Infections urinary tract, surgical incisions, respiratory tract
Universal Precautions "UPs" all treated with the same degree of care
Etiologic/Causative Agent cause of infection and disease
Koch's Postulates proofs that became standards in determining cause of disease
Epidemiology study of frequency and where
Florence Nightingale "mid 1850's" laid foundation of modern epidemiology
Reportable Or Notifiable Diseases certain must be reported to authorities, others reported voluntarily
Prevalence total number of existing cases
Incidence number of new cases
Mortality Rate total number of deaths in a population due to disease
Morbidity Rate sick people and rate of people
Point Source Epidemic infectious agent came from a single source
Common-Source Epidemic all exposed over a period of time
Propagated Epidemic communicable from person to person and sustained over time
Index Case first case found in an epidemiological investigation
Endemic standard existence in that location, constantly present
Sporadic occasional cases reported at irregular intervals at random locales ex. ebola
Epidemic increasing disease beyond what is expected by an epidemic or sporadic disease ex. flu
Pandemic spread throughout every country
1st Line Of Defense Skin
2nd Line Of Defense WBC, phagocytes, and inflammation reactions of the body
3rd Line Of Defense Acquired, must develop, and provides long term immunity
Physical Barrier Skin
Chemical Barrier enzymes; acid
Genetic Barrier naturally due to genetic factors
Skin flushing effect of sweat removes microbes
Mucous Membranes impedes entry and attachment of bacteria
Respiratory Tract triggers coughing to eject irritants
Genitourinary Tract bladder emptying flushes urethra
Resident Microbiota take away space and nutrient from microbes. cilia traps pathogens
Lysozyme enzyme in tears and saliva
Physical Barrier skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and resident microbiota
Immunology study of second and third line of defense
Markers molecules on cell surfaces
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS) markers different microbes have in common
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) used by host cells in the second line of defense
Mononuclear Phagocyte Systems (MPS) allows chemicals in the MPS and ECF to diffuse into blood and lymphatics
Lymphatic System network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs
Thymus site of T cell maturation
Lymphatic Vessel similar to thin-walled veins
Lymph Nodes small, encapsulated, bean-shaped organs
Spleen serves as a filter for blood instead of lymph
Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) bundle of lymphocytes on or beneath intestinal mucosa
Peyer's Patches cluster of lymphocytes in small intestine
Whole Blood Contains blood cells, plasma, and serum
Blood Cells formed elements
Plasma clear, yellowish fluid
Serum Essentially same as plasma, clear fluid from clotted blood
Hematopoiesis production of blood cells
Stem Cells precursor of new blood cells maintained in bone marrow
White Blood Cells leukocytes
Lymphocytes cells responsible for immune function
Second Line Of Defense generalized and nonspecific defenses support and interact with immune responses
Phagocytosis ingest and eliminate microbes and dead cells
Neutrophils react early in the inflammatory response to bacteria, foreign materials and damaged tissue
Monocytes Macrophages, process foreign substances and prepare them for reactions with B and T lymphocytes
Histiocytes live in a certain tissue and remain there during their lifespan
Phagocyte eating cell
Inflammasomes inside cytoplasm of phagocytic cells of innate immune system
Inflammatory Response can be local or systemic, easily identifiable by a classic series of signs and symptoms
Rubor redness by increased circulation and vasodilation in the injured tissue
Calor warmth by heat given off by increased blood flow
Tumor swelling by fluid escaping into the tissues
Dolor pain by the stimulation of nerve endings, loss of function
Inflammation Functions defensive reaction, and a means for the body to maintain stability and restore itself after injury
Cytokines small active molecules secreted to regulate, stimulate, suppress, and control cell development, inflammation, and immunity
Chemotaxis migration of cells in response to a specific chemical stimulus
Pus accumulation of whitish mass of cells, liquefied cellular debris, and bacteria
Pyogenic bacteria that stimulate the formation of pus
Fever abnormally elevated body temperature, nearly universal symptom of infection
Pyrogens substance that reset the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher setting
Exogenous Pyrogens infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi, endotoxin, blood, blood products, and vaccines
Endogenous Pyrogens liberated by monocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages during phagocytosis
Interferon small protein produced naturally by certain white blood and tissue cells
Interferon Gamma produced by T cells
Created by: MaryMamiChula