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Mendelian Genetics

Biology

QuestionAnswer
Who is considered to be the ''Father of Genetics¨? Gregor Mendel
What organism did Mendel use to come up with his ideas about inheritance? A pea plant
Why was this organism a good choice for Mendel? They are not complex, only have 2 distinct versions of genes, and reproduce rapidly.
What is the difference between a character and a trait? A character is a category & a trait is a single object in the category (Ex. eye color vs blue eyes).
How many characters did Mendel observe in his plants? 7
How many possible traits were there for each character in Mendel's plants? 2
What is an allele? Different forms of a gene.
How many alleles did each character have in Mendel's experiment? 2
How many alleles does each parent pass on to their offspring? 1
What does dominant mean? Strong gene, always expressed if there.
How do we represent a dominant allele? Capital letter
What does recessive mean? Weak gene
How do we represent a recessive allele? Lower case letter.
What does homozygous mean? Same (letters in the allele), True breeding (gg x GG)
What does heterozygous mean? Different (letters in the allele)
What is a genotype? Sequence of letters
What is a phenotype? Visible trait
Give an example of a homozygous dominant genotype. PP, TT, HH, FF
Give an example of a homozygous recessive genotype. pp, tt, hh, ff
Give an example of a heterozygous genotype. Pp, Tt, Hh, Ff
How can we use the heterozygous genotype to determine what the dominant trait is? The heterozygous phenotype always shows what the dominant trait is.
What is the law of dominance? Some alleles are dominant & some are recessive, dominant expressed.
What is the law of segregation? Only one allele is passed on, everyone has 2 alleles.
What is the law of independent assortment? Genes for different traits that segregate independently do not influence each other's inheritance, one gene has no effect on another.
What is the Punnett Square used for? Calculates probability of inheritance.
What are the six steps to making a Punnett Square? 1. Determine genotype of parents 2. Write the cross 3. Make the square 4. Split parent alleles & put on sides 5. Fill in the square 6. Analyze results
What do the letters on the sides of the Punnett Square represent? The alleles the parents can pass on.
What side of the Punnett Square do we usually put the father's alleles? The top
What side of the Punnett Square do we usually put the mother's alleles? The side
What do the letters inside the boxes of the Punnett Square represent? Possible genotypes of the offspring.
Mendel's P generation were considered to be true breeders. What does this mean? Pea's will produce offspring identical to themselves & self pollination is required. (Completely homozygous)
What were the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents in Mendel's P generation? PP Purple & pp White
What were the genotypes and phenotypes of Mendel's F1 generation? Pp All Purple
What did Mendel do with the F1 generation in order to create the F2 generation? He cross bred them.
What were the genotypes and phenotypes of Mendel's F2 generation? PP Purple, Pp Purple, pp White
What was the phenotypic ratio of the F1 generation? 4:0
What was the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation? 3:1
What is a hybrid? The offspring of crosses between parents with diffrent traits
What is a monohybrid cross? 1 trait
What is a dihybrid cross? 2 traits
List all the possible allele options for DD D
List all the possible allele options for Rr R, r
List all the possible allele options for RrTt RT, Rt, rT, rt
List all the possible allele options for Gghh Gh, gh
What is incomplete dominance? Neither allele is dominant, blend.
Give an example of an incomplete dominance? Red flower + White flower = Pink flowers
What is Co-Dominance? Neither allele is dominant or recessive, get both traits.
Give an example of a Co-Dominance character? Red cow + White cow = Roan Cow not Pink
Make a Punnett Square for: A homozygous recessive white bunny and heterozygous black bunny Answers: Bb, Bb, bb, bb
Make a Punnett Square for: A purple flower with round seeds (PPRr) and and a purple flower with wrinkled seeds (Pprr) Answers: PPRr, PpRr, PPrr, Pprr
Make a Punnett Square for: A heterozygous pink flower and a homozygous red flower (use incomplete dominance) Answers: RR, RR, RW, RW
Make a Punnett Square for: A roan cow and a white cow (use co-dominance) Answers: RW, RW, WW, WW
What is the equation for Chi-Square? X²=Σ (o-e)²/e
What does a Chi-Square test really test for? It test the goodness of fit.
How do you figure out what degree of freedom to use? Number of phenotypes/categories minus 1.
What percentage must be obtained for an acceptable value for the difference in data? 5% or 0.05
A brown eyed man (father had blue eyes and mother had brown eyes) is married to a brown eyed woman (parents both had brown eyes) they have two children, one with brown eyes and one with blue eyes. What are the genotypes of all the individuals involved? Grandmother (Dad): B? Grandfather (Dad): bb Dad: Bb Grandfather/mother (mom): BB or Bb (one has to be Bb) Mom: Bb Children: B?, bb
You cross a heterozygous purple flower with a homozygous white flower. Your results show that you produced 687 purple flower plants and 614 white flower plants. Perform a chi-square test to explain if the data is a good fit. Punnett Square Answers: Pp, Pp, pp, pp Observed: 687 Purple, 614 White, 1301 Total Expected: 650.5 Purple, 650.5 White X²= 4.096 No, this is not a good fit because it is not within 5%
What is a pedigree? A diagram showing genetic relationships between members of a family. It is used to analyze patterns of inheritance for specific genetic traits.
How can you tell what the dominant trait is in a pedigree? Look for two of the same parents that have a different child (the parents are dominant).
Created by: Elise.Postma