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Unit 9

Earth's Materials

TermDefinition
Asthenosphere The somewhat fluid portion of the mantle upon which the lithosphere is located.
Cementation The process of binding and hardening sediments into hard rock.
Compaction The process by which overlying pressure from rocks and soil reduces the size or volume of sediments.
Igneous A type of rock formed when crystallized through melting and cooling rock.
Lithosphere The top most layer of the Earth, which is comprised of the crust and solid portion of the upper mantle, divided into plates, and moves a top the layer known as the asthenosphere.
Mantle The region inside the Earth between the core and the crust.
Metamorphic A type of rock formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are put under intense heat and / or pressure in the Earth’s crust.
Plasticity The quality of being easily shaped or molded.
Rock Cycle The continual process by which rocks can be changed into different types of rock.
Sedimentary A type of rock formed through the accumulation, compaction, and cementation of sediment.
Sedimentation The deposition of solid material from being suspended in a fluid (water).
Semi-solid Having the qualities of both a solid and a liquid; exceptionally thick substance.
Weathering The process by which rocks are broken down into small grains and soil.
Erosion The process by which soil and rock particles are worn away and moved elsewhere by gravity, or by a moving transport agent – wind, water or ice.
Deposition The geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Minerals The building blocks of rocks; A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, crystalline substance which has a fixed structure and a chemical composition.
Created by: Turnerr