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Week 6 Evolution

Bio 1100

What is evolution? A change in the frequency of alleles in a population. Fact and theory.
Adaptation Process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.
How to find frequency of alleles? Divide the number of one type of allele by the total number of alleles.
Natural selection The process by which organisms better suited to their environment produce more offspring.
Genetic Drift Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population.
Gene Flow Transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another. (Migration)
Mechanisms of Evolution Genetic Drift (chance), Gene Flow (migration), Natural Selection (adaptation)
MacroEvolution Descent with modification: Current species are descendants from ancestral species, which were different from the current ones.
MicroEvolution A change in the genetic composition of a population from one generation to the next.
Creationism The belief that the universe and all living things originate from specific acts of divine creation.
Evolutionary creationism The belief that god created the first cells and the earth etc, but afterwards evolution took place.
Georges Buffon (1707-1788) Suggested that the earth was much older than previously believed.
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) By documenting fossil discoveries, showed that extinction had occurred.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Suggested that living species might change over time.
Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Argued that geological forces had gradually shaped the earth and continue to do so.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Published "origin of species" and is world renounced for his contribution to the theory of evolution.
Alfred Wallace (1823-1913) Described the process of evolution by natural selection and encouraged Darwin to publish the idea.
Darwin traveled on the ____ around the world. HMS Beagle
Darwin's position on the voyage was _______. The Captains gentleman Companion.
What were some of the observations Darwin made on the voyage that led to his book. Resemblance of island Finch species to mainland finch species. Resemblance of extinct species to living species in the same area.
Beliefs previous to Darwins publishing All organisms were put on earth by the creator at the same time. Organisms are fixed, no additions or substitutions. Earth is 6000 years old and is unchanging.
Beliefs following Darwins publishing Organisms change over time. Some organisms have gone extinct. Earth is more than 6000 years old. The Geology of earth is always changing.
Conditions of evolution by natural selection. There is a variation for a trait. The Variation is heritable, Differential reproductive success.
Variation for a trait Different versions of a trait are present within a population.
Heritability The different versions of a trait may be passed from parent to offspring.
Differential reproductive success. individuals with the version of a trait most suited to reproduction in their environment generally leave more offspring than individuals with other versions of the trait.
FItness Reproductive success of an individual with a certain trait compared to others without the trait.
In the 1940's penicillin was uniformly effective in killing the bacterium _______. Staphylococcus aureus.
Natural Selection has led to an ________ in antibiotic-resistance allele, and humans are increasingly at risk from untreatable Staphylococcus Aureus. Increase
Tiktaalik fossils seem to represent a transitional phase between _________ and ___________. They have gills, scales ,and fins, but like salamanders, they have arm like ______ that could support their bodies. lobe-finned fishes, Terrestrial vertebrates, Joints.
Anatomical Homologies Structural similarities in organs with different functions reveal common ancestry.
Anatomical Homologies in Embryos Similar embryonic structures have different developmental fates.
Vestigial Organs as Anatomical Homologies Remnants of organs that served a function in an organisms ancestors are still present, without a function. (Coccyx and Arrector pili muscle in humans)
Analogy: Convergent evolution Similar environmental pressures lead to similar characteristics in organisms from different lineages. (insect wing bird wing, bat wing)
Homology Similarities in structure due to shared ancestry. Homologous structures can have different functions in different organisms.
Analogy Similarities in structure due to convergent evolution. Analogous structures evolved independently from each other in different lineages.
Created by: Joeyyip13