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Chapter 9 & 10

The Heart and Blood Vessels

Where is the heart located? between lungs in MEDIASTINUM
What are the Apex of the heart? inferior, lower, pointed end to the left 5th intercostal space
What is the Base of the heart? Superior, broader, upper portion
Fibrous pericardium outer, prevents overstretching of the heart, provides protection, and anchors the heart in the mediastinum
Serous pericardium deeper and contains 2 sublayers: parietal and visceral layer
Parietal Layer sublayer of serous pericardium, outer which is fused to the fibrous pericardium
Visceral Layer Also known as epicardium, sublayer of serous pericardium, inner portion
Pericardial fluid lubricating fluid that reduces friction between the layers as the heart moves
Epicardium outer layer of the heart, composed of mesothelium and connective tissue
Myocardium thick, middle layer of heart, composed of cardiac muscle tissue
Endocardium inner layer of the heart, composed of connective tissue covered by endothelium that is continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels
What is the external feature that is located between the atria and ventricles? Coronary sulcus
What is the external feature that is located between 2 ventricles? anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus
What blood vessels deliver blood to the right atrium? Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
Superior Vena Cava brings blood from most parts of the body superior to the heart
Inferior Vena Cava brings blood from all parts of the body inferior to the diaphragm
Coronary Sinus receives blood from most of the vessels draining the wall of the heart
Fossa Ovalis oval depression
Chordate tendineae heart string tendons that connect papillary muscle
Papillary muscle nipple like projected muscle
trabeculae carneae irregular surface of ridges
Right atrium carry blood back to the heart
Left atrium carry blood away from heart
Correct order in which the blood flows through the valves starting in right atrium? tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, bicuspid (mitral), and aortic semilunar
Interventricular septum separates two ventricles
Which side has deoxygenated blood? right side
Which side has oxygenated blood? left side
Which valve prevents back flow of blood into left ventricle? Aortic valve
Which valve prevents back flow of blood into the right ventricle? Pulmonary semilunar valve
Which valve prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium? Tricuspid valve
Which valve prevents back flow of blood into the left atrium? Bicuspid valve
Function of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valve permit ejection of blood from the ventricles but prevent back flow of blood into the heart
Function of arteries carry blood away from the heart
Function of veins carry the blood back to the heart
The right ventricle pumps blood through _____ into the _____ which divides into ________ and ____________ pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, right & left pulmonary arteries
What vessels carry deoxygenated blood to the heart? Superior vena cavity, inferior vena cavity, coronary sinus
What vessels carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart? Pulmonary Arteries/ trunk
What vessels carry oxygenated blood toward the heart? Pulmonary veins
What vessels carry oxygenated blood away from the heart? Aorta
What valves are associated with deoxygenated blood? Tricuspid and pulmonary
What valves are associated with oxygenated blood? Bicuspid and aortic
What are the branches of the left coronary artery? anterior inter ventricular branch, circumflex branch
What are the branches of the right coronary artery? posterior inter ventricular branch, marginal branch
Coronary sinus blood drainage out of the myocardium collects carbon dioxide and wastes and flows in here
Which chamber of the heart has the thickest wall? left ventricle
What are the first paired vessels to branch from the aorta? right and left coronary arteries that deliver blood to the walls of the heart
What structure drains the great and middle cardiac veins? coronary sinus
Which is the hearts natural pacemaker? SA Node: sinoatrial node
Vasa Vasorum supply oxygen and nutrients to the walls of large blood vessels
Tunica Interna consist of endothelium, basement membrane, and internal elastic lamina (inner portion of blood vessels)
Tunica Media elastic fibers which provide compliance and smooth muscle fibers (middle portion of blood vessel)
Tunica Externa Primarily elastic and collagen fibers, a less prominent external elastic lamina that contains the vasa vasorum in the larger blood vessels (outer portion of blood vessels)
The thickest layer of an artery? tunica media
What arteries function as a pressure reservoir? large elastic conducting arteries
What arteries function as distributing arteries? medium sized muscular arteries
What are the functions of arterioles? a very small branch of an artery that delivers blood to a capillary
What vessels are known as resistance vessels arterioles
What vessels permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding interstitial fluids? microcirulation
What regulates the blood flow through the capillary? precapillary sphincter
3 type of capillaries? continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, sinusoids
Continuous capillaries most common, plasma membranes of the endothelial cells form a continuous tube that is interrupted only by intercellular clefts
fenestrated capillaries filtration in kidneys
Sinusoids tortuous, in liver, spleen, redbone marrow
What vessels make up the microculation? Arteriole, veins, capillary
Veins paper thin walls, have valves, function is to prevent back flow of blood and aid in moving blood toward the heart
Vascular (venous) sinus a vein with a thin endothelial wall that has no smooth muscle to alter its diameter
What mechanisms assist the venous return? respiratory pump mechanism, muscle pump mechanism, pocket valves
Respiratory pump mechanism pressure changes occur in the thoracic and abdominal cavities during inspiration and expiration
Muscle pump mechanism muscular contractions compress the veins, squeezing blood back towards the heart
Pocket valves inside the veins prevent back flow of blood returning to the heart
Anastomosis union of branches of two or more arteries supplying the same body region
End Artery arteries that do not anastomose
The largest portion of blood is located in which type of vessels at rest? systemic veins and venules
In fetal circulation what vessel carries oxygenated blood? umbilical vein
In fetal circulation, how does most of the blood by passes the lungs, and joint the systemic circulation? ductus anteriosus
Created by: _melgozacaroo15



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