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Plant Test 2

D

QuestionAnswer
Radicle First structure to emerge upon germination
4 functions of roots Anchorage, absorption, conduction, storge
What 2 hormones are produced by roots? Cytokinins, gibberellins
Secondary metabolites Chemicals produced by plant but not needed for plant's survival; can provide protection
Examples of secondary metabolites Nicotine, tannins
2 types of root systems Taproot and fibrous
What plants have taproot Magnoliids and eudicots
Taproot Radicle keeps growing deeper and smaller roots come off it
What plants have fibrous roots Monocots
Fibrous roots Radicle grows into short-lived taproot that is replaced by adventitious roots growing from hypocotyl
Rootcap Produced by apical meristem and forms protective armor around it
Mucigel Slime secreted to lubricate root
Rhizosphere Zone of mucigel around tip of root
Function of rhizosphere Prevent desiccation and feed bacteria that convert unusable nitrogen to NO3
What do plants use NO3 for? To build amino acids, proteins, and compounds like chlorophyll A and B
How does the lateral root get outside? Produces an enzyme to break through cortex and epidermis
Columella Directs root growth through gravitropism
Gravitropism Growing in response to gravity
How are amyloplasts involved in gravitropism? Detect direction of gravity so roots can grow down
2 apical meristem organizations Open and closed
Open One layer of initials, not visible
Closed 3 layers of initials
Top initial layer Vascular
Middle initial layer Ground
Bottom initial layer Dermal and root cap
Quiescent center Area of initials, mitotically active in early root development, no divisions in older roots
When does a quiescent center reactivate? When root tip is injured
3 regions of a root Cell division, elongation, maturation
Root epidermis Most 1 cell layer thick, no or poorly developed cuticle, involved in absorption
4 special epidermal features Multi-layers, velamen, root hairs, trichoblast
Velamen Multiple-layered epidermis found in epaphytes like orchids
Root hairs Increase surface area for absorption
Trichoblast Epidermal cell that gives rise to a root hair
Hypodermis Most with secondary cell walls, normally several layers, lack suberin
Exodermis Primary or secondary cell wall, single layer, Casparian strip
Endodermis Innermost layer of cortex surrounding vascular tissue, single layer, initially primary cell wall, Casparian strip
Casparian strip Layer of suberin , osmotic barrier
Endodermal cells with secondary cell walls Above root hair region, suberin lined, passage cells
Passage cells Still living with no secondary cell wall, still allows lateral transport for sugar and water
Vascular cylinder Inside endodermis
Pericylce 1 or more layers of parenchyma cells just inside endodermis that completely surrounds the xylem and phloem
Xylem arches in dicots Tetraarch and pantaarch
Xylem arches in monocots Polyarch, pith
Origin of lateral roots Pericycle
Pneumataphores Grow against gravity to go above water for gas exchange, lots of intercellular spaces (aerenchyma)
Adventitious roots Roots with origin other than pericycle
2 types of adventitious roots Aerial and prop roots
Aerial roots Above ground, involved in absorption, can have suction cups on ends
Prop roots Type of aerial root at base of stem, provides support
Where do vascular and cork cambium come from Vascular tissue system
Woody perennial roots Horizontal growth, top 6 inches of soil
Vertical anchoring roots Several feet deep
Feeder roots Grow up and out, small <1/16 inch diameter, replaced regularly, grow in upper layer of soil where there are more nutrients
Created by: iragland