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Plant Test 2


2 regions of a plant Root and shoot
2 parts of the shoot Stems and leaves
Stem function Raise leaves to compete for sunlight
5 parts of a stem Node, internode, axillary/lateral bud, terminal bud
Node Where leaf attaches
Internode Stem between nodes
Axillary/lateral bud Meristem at tips of branches
Terminal bud Meristem at apex of stem, if it produces a flower it ends growth of the plant
Phytomere One series of a node, internode, and axillary bud
What two things can a lateral bud produce? New branch or reproductive structure
What happens to a lateral bud if it produces a new branch? Becomes terminal bud of that branch
What two types of meristems produce primary growth? Apical and intercalary
What plants have intercalary meristems? Grasses
Intercalary meristems Occur away from apex and become active if apical meristem is removed
What are the two lateral meristems that produce secondary growth? Vascular cambium and cork cambium
Cyto-Histological Concept How gymnosperms grow
Tunica-Corpus Concept How angiosperms grow
Who came up with Cyto-Histological Concept? Majumdar 1942
Who came up with Tunica-Corpus Concept? Schmidt 1924
What is the tunica? Outermost layer of cells on apical meristem
What does the tunica do? Divide anticlinally to produce surface growth
How many tunica layers do most angiosperms have? 3; L1, L2, L3
What is the corpus? Spherical body of cells beneath tunica
What does the corpus do? Divide periclinally and anticlinally to add bulk to developing stem
What are the 2 zones of the corpus? Peripheral/marginal zone and central mother cell zone
Peripheral/marginal zone Outer layer of corpus with lots of cell divisions
Central mother cell zone Bulk of corpus with few cell divisions
Peripheral meristem From L1, L2, L3 of tunica and peripheral zone of corpus
Pith or rib meristem Areas just beneath the central mother cell zone; develops from peripheral zone
What does peripheral meristem produce? Epidermis, ground tissue, leaves, axillary buds
Which vascular tissue starts developing first? Xylem
What direction does xylem develop? From inside towards outside (enarch)
What direction does phloem develop? From outside towards inside (exarch)
Protoxylem First xylem to develop, matures while stem is still elongating, often destroyed after metaxylem matures
Metaxylem Mature xylem with larger cell diameter
Protophloem First phloem to develop, first to mature look like elongated parenchyma cells without nuclei
Metaphloem Mature phloem
Wall thickenings in protoxylem Annular and helical
Wall thickenings in metaxylem Scalariform and pitted
Pattern of xylem development Annular then helical then scalariform then pitted
Procambium Parenchyma cells that give rise to primary xylem and phloem
Vascular cambium Responsible for secondary growth, produces secondary xylem and phloem
What plants have continuous vascular bundles Magnoliids and primitive eudicots
Interfascicular region Parenchyma cells of vascular cambium between vascular bundles
Vascular cambium Single layer of parenchyma cells between xylem and phloem
Cortex Area outside of ring of vascular bundles
Pith (eudicots) Area inside of ring of vascular bundles
Cortex (monocots) Area surrounding vascular bundles
What is the cortex made of? Parenchyma and collenchyma
What is pith made of (eudicots)? Parenchyma cells
What do ducts or canals contain? Slimy carbohydrates called mucilage
Intrafascicular region Vascular cambium within vascular bundles
Pith ray Smaller in tightly packed xylem, gets broader in the looser phloem
2 types of separated vascular bundles Open and closed
Open vascular bundles In plants with secondary growth, have ring of vascular cambium
What does intrafascicular vascular cambium produce? Vascular tissue
What does interfascicular vascular cambium produce? Ground tissue
Closed vascular bundles No vascular cambium, in plants with no secondary growth, vascular bundles surrounded by sheath
Vascular bundle sheath Made of sclerenchyma cells
3 types of vascular tissue organization Continuous, separated ring, scattered
What plants have scattered vascular bundles? Monocots and some tropical eudicots
Characteristics of scattered vascular bundles Vascular bundles closed, no secondary growth, no pith, all ground tissue is cortex
Leaf trace Where vascular tissue extends to leaf
Branch trace Where vascular tissue extends to branch
Leaf gap Break in vascular tissue above leaf trace
Branch gap Break in vascular tissue above branch trace
Sympodium Stem bundle and associated leaf or branch trace
What is secondary growth? Roots and stems increase in diameter in regions no longer elongating
Which plants have secondary growth? All gymnosperms, all Magnoliids, some eudicots
What are plants with secondary growth classified as? Perennials, and some annuals that evolved from larger ancestors
What happens to primary tissues when secondary growth occurs? Destroyed and replaced by new tissues, mostly secondary xylem
What does vascular cambium produce? Secondary xylem, secondary phloem, vascular rays
What does cork cambium produce? Periderm (replaces ruptured epidermis)
Periclinal Parallel to surface
Anticlinal Perpendicular to surface
2 types of vascular cambium initials Fusiform and ray
Fusiform initials Vertically elongated, give rise to vascular tissue
Ray initials Horizontally elongated, give rise to vascular rays
Vascular rays Made of parenchyma, in secondary xylem and phloem
Vascular ray functions Lateral transport, storage
Symplastically Crosses cell membrane and goes through protoplast; uses energy
Apoplastically Moves between cells and along cell walls
What do vascular rays transport symplastically? Sucrose
What do vascular rays transport apoplastically? Water
What do vascular rays store? Starch and lipids
3 classifications of vascular rays Uniseriate, biseriate, multiseriate
Uniseriate 1 cell layer wide
Biseriate 2 cell layers wide
Multiseriate 3 or more cell layers wide
2 types of secondary phloem Functional and non-functional
Functional phloem Still involved in transport
Non-functional phloem Older and crushed/destroyed
What is wood? Secondary xylem
Transverse Cross section
Radial Longitudinal section through center
Tangential Longitudinal section not through center
Spring wood Biggest cells for more water transport
Summer wood Medium cells for less water
Fall wood Small cells because no leaves means less water needed
Is storied or non-storied wood stronger? Non-storied
Heartwood Older secondary xylem, no longer involved in transport, often darker
Sapwood Younger secondary xylem, actively involved in transport, often lighter
How does sapwood change to heartwood? Anything stored in cells removed, oils gums and resins form, sometimes produce tyloses
Tyloses Balloon-like outgrowths from ray parenchyma cells into vessels through pits that clog vessel
What are tyloses made of? Polysaccharides and pectin
Softwood Conifers with tracheids, writing paper and brown paper bags
Hardwood Deciduous trees with vessels, fibers, and tracheids; kodak paper, toilet paper, napkins, kleenex
Knot Lateral branch that has been covered with secondary xylem
2 types of knots Tight and loose
Origin of phellogen (cork cambium) One of the layers of the cortex
What does phellogen produce? Phellem to outside and phelloderm to inside
Phellem Cork, dead, lined with suberin
Phelloderm characteristic Living
Periderm Outer protective covering of trees
3 parts of periderm Phellogen, phellem, and phelloderm
Lenticel Permanent opening in periderm for gas exchange, caused by area of higher cell division activity pushing periderm up and splitting
What does bark include? Periderm, secondary phloem, some vascular cambium
4 types of bark Thin & peeling, scaly, furrowed, shaggy
Created by: iragland



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