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Plant Test 2


Meristems Tissues in which cells are actively dividing
Primary meristems Where primary growth (elongation) occurs
Apical meristems Meristems at apex of stems and tips of roots
Two apical meristem cell types Initials and derivatives
Initials Meristematic cells that divide
Derivatives New body cells produced by initials
What do apical meristems bring about? Primary growth
What does primary plant body result from? Primary growth
What are the 3 overlapping processes in the formation of the primary plant body? Growth, morphogenesis, differentiation
Growth Division and enlargement
Morphogenesis Development of shape or form, determined by location and function
Differentiation How cells differ, based on location and gene expression
What can derivatives do? Continue to divide until they differentiate into a specific cell type
Why are tree trunks wider at the base? Secondary growth through lateral meristems starts at the base
Primary tissues Make up primary plant body
Tissue Group of cells working together to perform a function
What are the 3 tissue systems? Dermal, ground, and vascular
Permanent tissues Tissues that perform a certain function
2 types of permanent tissues Simple and complex
Simple tissue All cells are the same
Complex tissue Cells are different types
What's another name for ground tissue? Fundamental
Which tissue system has simple tissues? Ground
What are 3 types of simple ground tissue? Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
2 characteristics of parenchyma Living at maturity, typically only a primary cell wall
Location of parenchyma Throughout plant
3 functions of parenchyma Metabolism in leaves, storage in roots, conduction over short distance
3 types of parenchyma Transfer, aerenchyma, chlorenchyma
Transfer parenchyma For transport or conduction, cell wall grows inward
Aerenchyma Large spaces between cells that allow air to move freely
Chlorenchyma Have chloroplasts for photosynthesis
Example of transfer parenchyma Synergins
What has aerenchyma? Pneumataphores, water lillies
4 characteristics of collenchyma Elongated, unevenly thickened primary cell walls, living, occur in groups
Location of collenchyma In bundles beneath epidermis
2 examples of collenchyma Celery strings, leaf petioles
Function of collenchyma Provide support
Type of collenchyma Angular
2 types of sclerenchyma Sclereids and fibers
3 characteristics of sclereids Shape varies, secondary cell wall, dead at maturity
Location of sclereids Throughout plant, individually or in bundles
Functions of sclereids Protection and support
4 types of sclereids Brachysclereids, astrosclereids, columnar, osteosclereids
Brachysclereids Stone cells
Astrosclereids Have sharp projections like stars
Columnar sclereids Long column
Osteosclereids Bone-shaped
4 characteristics of fibers Elongated, 0.2 mm-0.5 m, thick secondary cell wall, dead at maturity
Location of fibers Xylem and phloem, or throughout
What has fibers throughout? Leaves of many monocots
Function of fibers Support
What tissue systems have complex tissue? Vascular and dermal
What 4 cell types make up the xylem? Parenchyma, fibers, tracheids, vessels
Tracheids function For conduction in seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, and primitive angiosperms
Tracheids characteristic Pits but no perforations
Vessels function Conduction in angiosperms
Vessels characteristics Pits on side walls and perforation plates on cell ends
3 types of perforation plates Scalariform, simple angular, simple truncate
Scalariform Has bars
Angular Cut at an angle
Truncate Cut straight across
What 4 cell types make up the phloem? Parenchyma, fibers, sieve cells, sieve tube elements
What plants have sieve cells? Gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants
Sieve area Place on sieve cell with primary pit field
4 characteristics of sieve cells Primary cell wall, living, lack nucleus, small pores all over
Albuminous cell Specialized parenchyma cell that regulates the loading of sugars in and out of the sieve cell
Callose Polysaccharide made of glucans
What happens when a sieve cell is damaged? Releases callose to clog pores and prevent constant loss of sugar
What plants have sieve tube elements? Angiosperms
4 characteristics of sieve tube elements Primary cell wall, living, lack nucleus, large sieve plates instead of pores
Sieve plates Large pores at ends of sieve tube elements that allow more efficient flow
Companion cell Parenchyma cell that loads sugars in and out of the sieve tube element
What is p-protein Slime plug in phloem
Origin of p-protein All eudicots and some monocots have it
Relationship between albuminous cell and sieve cell From different mother cells
Relationship between companion cell and sieve cell From the same mother cell, very close
P-protein in monocots In proteinoplast
P-protein in eudicots Lines cell membrane
What plugs pores in sieve tube elements? Callose and p-protein
What does the dermal tissue system include Epidermis
6 characteristics of epidermis Continuously covers primary plant body, made of parenchyma cells, tightly packed, outer cell wall thickest, most lack chloroplast, typically living at maturity
4 functions of epidermis Protection, prevent water loss in stems and leaves, absorption in roots, support
2 specialized epidermal features Cuticle and epicuticular waxes
What is the cuticle made of? Cutin
Where does the cuticle come from? Synthesized by epidermal cells
Cuticle function Mechanical barrier, prevents water loss
4 shapes of epicuticular waxes Platelets, rods, granules, hollow
Epicuticular wax function Additional protection, prevent water loss by slowing air flow across leaves
5 types of epidermal cells Ordinary, guard cells, subsidiary cells, bulliform cells, trichomes
Ordinary epidermal cells No chloroplasts
Guard cells Specialized epidermal cells with chloroplasts that occur in pairs around a stomata; inner cell wall thicker than outer
Subsidiary cells Occur around some guard cells to make them fit more tightly within normal epidermal cells
Bulliform cells Larger, typically in some leaves, pump water out to collapse and cause leaf to roll up to prevent water loss
Trichome Hairs, for protection, can have glandular tips, can be part of epidermal cell or a separate cell, can be unicellular or multicellular, can be composed of different types of cells
Created by: iragland



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