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Biology lap 10

test review

What is the science of naming and grouping organisms called? taxonomy
binomial nomenclature a two word naming system
Modern systematists try to group organisms based on evolutionary relationships
Which of these are the correct way to write scientific names in the binomial nomenclature system? both words are italicized the first word is capitalized the second word is not capitalized
the general term for a grouping in taxonomy taxa
the largest taxonomic category kingdom
the smallest taxonomic category species
between the kingdom and the class phylum
between the order and the genus family
A group that is limited to a common ancestor and all of its descendants monophyletic group
A specific trait that is used to construct a cladogram is called a derived character
A branch of a cladogram that consists of a single common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor is called a clade
The study of how living and extinct organisms are related to one another phylogeny
Unicelled organisms that lack nuclei and have cell walls made with peptidoglycan Eubacteria
Mostly unicelled organisms that may have cell walls made of cellulose Protist
Mostly multicelled organisms that have cell walls made of chitin Fugus
Multicelled organisms that can move from place to place under their own power Animal
Multicelled organisms that do not move and make their own food by using sunlight Plant
Unicelled organisms that lack nuclei and have cell walls made without peptidoglycan Archaebacteria
they feed on dead or decaying organic matter Fungi
they include mosses and ferns Plantae
they have no cell walls Animalia
What are the 3 domains of life? Archaea Bacteria Eukarya
What is the Archaea kingdom called and what are the characteristics of the organisms in this kingdom? The kingdom is Archaebacteria prokaryotic, unicellular organisms live in extreme conditions
Examples of archaea kingdom thermophiles, halophiles, methanogens
What is the name of the kingdom under the Bacteria domain and what are their characteristics? The kingdom is called Eubacteria. These prokaryotic, unicellular organisms are bacteria that can be autotrophic or heterotrophic, live in almost every niche, and divide by binary fission.
What are the Eukarya kingdoms? Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
What are the characteristics of Protista (cell type, cell number, how they get their nourishment)? eukaryotic, mostly unicellular, and may be either autotrophic or heterotrophic. This is the grab bag kingdom that consists of eukaryotic organisms that are not a fungi, plant or animal.
What are the characteristics of Fungi (cell type, cell number, how they get their nourishment, are they motile)? They are eukaryotic, mostly multicellular, non-motile and absorptive heterotrophs. They are decomposers very important to our food chain.
What are the characteristics of plants (cell type, cell number, how they get their nourishment, are they motile)? They are eukaryotic, multicellular, non-motile and autotrophic.
What are the characteristics of animals (cell type, cell number, how they get their nourishment, are they motile)? They are eukaryotic, multicellular, motile and ingestive heterotrophs
What are the three different way that bacteria can organize themselves? Strepto Staphylo Diplo
What are the three different shapes of bacteria? Coccus Bacillus Spirilla
sphere shaped Coccus
rod shaped Bacillus
spiral shaped Spirilla
in chains Strepto
in cluster Staphylo
in groups of 2 Diplo
What would you call sphere shaped bacteria organized in a cluster? Staphylococcus
What are the 3 modes of movement for bacteria? Cilia, flagella, pseudopods.
What kind of environmental conditions do bacteria favor? Moist, dark places of varying temperature.
What do you call an organism that requires oxygen to survive? Obligate aerobe
What do you call an organism that can not tolerate oxygen? Obligate anaerobe
What do you call an organism that prefers oxygen but can also tolerate atmospheric conditions where there is no oxygen? Facultative anaerobe
What are parasites? Organisms that live off of and harm their hosts.
What are saprobes? Decomposers
What are autotrophs? Self feeders
What are heterotrophs? organisms that have to consume things for their nourishment
Name 3 types of Protists. Algal protists Fungal protists Protozoans
What are the importance of the algal and fungal protists? They are part of the base of the food chain and they provide 50 – 60% of the atmospheric oxygen.
What disease does the protozoan, trypanosome, cause and what is its vector? It causes the African sleeping sickness and the vector for the trypanosome is the Tsetse fly.
What disease does the protozoan, amoeba, cause? Dysentery
What disease does the protozoan, plasmodium, cause and what is its vector? It causes malaria and its vector is a mosquito.
Name 6 types of invertebrates? Proifera Echinoderms Cniderian Arthropods Worms Mollusk
What are the characteristics of Proifera (sponges)? They are simple, asymmetrical, aquatic, have no tissues or organs and can regenerate.
What are characteristics of Cnidarians? Cnidarians have 2 body forms: medusa (domed) and polyp, they also have tentacles and stinging cells.
Name 3 general types of worms? Flat worms Round worms Segmented worms
What are the characteristics of Mollusks? They have soft muscular bodies and some have shells.
Name 3 types of Mollusks? Bivalves – (2 shells e.g. oyster) Gastropods – (stomach feet e.g. snail) Cephalopods – (head feet e.g. octopus)
What are the characteristics of echinoderms? Echinoderms have 5-part symmetry and spiny skin.
What are examples of echinoderms ? Sea Urchins Starfish Sand Dollars
What are the characteristics of arthropods? Arthropods have jointed legs and segmented bodies.
What are some examples of arthropods? Spiders Scorpions Ticks Horseshoe crabs Crustaceans Insects
What are the characteristics of vertebrates? They are chordates, have notochords, dorsal nerve cords and gill slits
Name 5 basic types of invertebrates? Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals
What are the characteristics of fish? Aquatic vertebrates Gills Ectothermic Fins and scales
What are the characteristics of Amphibians? Larva have gills Adults have lungs Ecothermic
What are the characteristics of reptiles? Dry scaly skin Ectothermic Lay shelled eggs
What are the characteristics of birds? Feathers and wings Endothermic Light skeleton Lay shelled eggs
What are characteristics of mammals? Hair or fur Endothermic Produce milk
Name 3 kinds of mammals and give a distinguishing characteristic? Monotremes Marsupials Placental
Monotremes lay eggs
Marsupials carry offspring in pouches
Placental live offspring
What is a controversial 7th kingdom? Non-cellular viruses
Why was it necessary to classify all living things? To avoid confusion. Common names vary in different languages and place to place. Need consensus about the names of things.
How did Aristotle classify living things? either plants or animals.
Who was John Ray and how did he propose to classify/name organisms? proposed using long detailed Latin names for each species.
Why aren’t we using the Ray system today? names were too long and laborious to use. Not accessible to the uneducated person.
In the 1700, Carolus Linnaeus proposed a different way of classifying organism. How many taxa did his original system have and how was it organized? He had 4 taxa originally. Species were organized into taxa that formed a hierarchy or set of ordered ranks.
How many taxa are there today and what are they (ranging from most general to very specific)? There are 7 taxa today: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Describe the binomial nomenclature he proposed for naming organisms. The first word is the genus and the second word is he species.
What are the conventions for writing, typing, or abbreviating the name of an organism? If hand-written, the name is underlined If it is typed, the name is italicized. use the first initial of the genus and then the species name
History of classification – names and examples Darwin's theory of evolution changed the way biologists thought classification categories Instead of looking at the physical similarities and differences, it represent lines of evolutionary
Canis familiaris dog
Panthera leo lion
Felis concolor cougar
Panthera tigris tiger
Ursus americanus black bear
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens
Bos Taurus cattle
Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle
Ursus arctos horribilis Grizzly bear
Canis lupus wolf
Felis catus cat
Acinonyx jubatus cheetah
Cavia porcellus guinea pig
Canis latrans coyote
Equus ferus horse
The kingdoms and how they’ve changed through time In the 1700s there were 2 kingdoms, Plantae and Animalia for plants and animals. In the Late 1800s another kingdom was created, Protista for things that weren't plants or animals. Mostly microscopic because that is when the microscope was .....
How do bacteria reproduce? binary fission
What kind of environments do Archaebacteria live in? extreme environments
What kind of environment does a Thermophile live in? intense heat
What kind of environment does a Halophile live in? high salt concentration
How did Linnaeus classify organisms? by structure
What was Linnaeus' system for classifying things called? binomial nomenclature
What language is used for binomial nomenclature? Latin
The more taxons organisms share, the more closely related they are
Ex. of faculative anaerobes E.coli Soil bacteria Water bacteria
The kingdoms and how they’ve changed through time discovered. In the 1950s two more kingdoms were added, Fungi (decomposers) and Monera for everything that did not have a nucleus (bacteria). In 1990s Monera was classified into 2 small kingdoms, Eubacteria and Archaebacteria for bacteria.
Created by: fikott1



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