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Social Studies

Centrifugal Force A force that divides people and countries.
Centripetal Force A force that unites people and countries
Common Market A group of countries that acts as a single market, without trade barriers between member countries.
Supranational Cooperation A form of international cooperation in which countries give up some control of their affairs as they work together achieve shared goals.
Demography The study of human populations, including how they change due to births, death, aging, and migration.
Dependency Ratio The number of old and young dependents who don't work compared with the working - age population.
Life Expectancy The average age that a person in a given population can expect to live.
Replacement Rate The total fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself.
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children a woman in a given population will have in her lifetime.
Acid Rain Rain that can damage the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke, and car exhaust.
Nuclear Radiation A form of energy that comes from nuclear radiations. Radiation has no smell but can be harmful.
River System A river and all that streams that flow into it. The streams flow into a river called Tributaries.
Transboundary Pollution Pollution that starts in one country and crosses boundaries into other countries.
Stage 1 - ¨Low Population Growth¨ In this stage, High death rates, high death rates result in little population change. All populations began at this stage
Stage 2 - ¨Rapid Population Growth¨ Birth rates remain high as the economic develops but the death rates fall as Food Supplies increase in healthcare improves.
Stage 3 - ¨Slow Population Growth¨ As the economy improves the birth rates drop. Death rates stay low. Population growth begins to slow down.
Stage 4 - ¨No or Negative Population Growth¨ In developed countries both birth rates and death rates drop to lower levels. As a result there is little or no population growth. Overtime birth rates may fall behind death rates. The result is a shrinking population.
Erosion The gradual wearing away of Earth's surface by the action of wind, ice, and gravity.
Glaciation The creation and movement of glaciers
Physical Processes Natural forces that change Earth's physical features, including forces that build up and wear down Earth's surface.
Tectonic Movement The movement of plates below Earth's surface.
Volcanic Activity The formation and eruption of volcanoes.
What 3 population Dilemmas are European Countries facing today? Negative population, Population aging, Workforce declining.
What happened to Chernobyl? A reactor had an explosion that released a radioactive cloud.
Why did this happen to Chernobyl? A human error.
What happened to the pollution from the plant? The pollution from the plant, spread radioactive pollution over a wide area.
How is Acid Rain formed? Burning Fossil fuels, such as coal for energy
What and where is the Black Triangle? Triangle is one of Europe´s most polluted areas where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic, meet.
what happened in the Danube? A large amount of cyanide spilled into a river.
What area was affected? The Hungry, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria.
which rivers were affected? Szamos river, Tisza River, Danube River.
What causes Erosion? Wind and Running Water.
What causes Glaciations? moving glaciers.
what causes glaciers to move? Gravity.
What causes tectonic plates? Movement under Earth's surface.
What causes Volcanoes? When magma rises to the surface of the earth.
What is the Ring of Fire? Major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Weathering Natural processes that break down rocks into smaller pieces.
Mass Wasting The movement of rocks that has been weathered.
Deposition The putting down of eroded material.
Horn The pointed peak of a mountain top shaped by moving glaciers.
U-Shaped Valley A valley shaped like a U and formed by moving glaciers.
Glaciers A large, moving mass of ice on earth's surface.
Moraine A mound of dirt and rocks left by a glacier.
Lava Liquid rock that erupts from a volcano.
Crater The hole at the top of a volcano where land around the opening has collapsed.
Main Vent The place where magma bursts through earth's crust.
Magma Chamber The place deep underground where magma collects.
fold mountain a mountain formed when colliding tectonic plates forces earth's crust to wrinkle or fold
fault block mountain a mountain formed when a block of earth's crust slides upward along a fault line
fault a crack in earth's crust
Created by: 1964109908