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Genetics Study Guide

What is the difference between inherited traits and environmentally influenced traits? Inherited traits are directly passed from generation/parent to offspring. Man-made items or nature impacting traits are environmental.
What is a carrier? Someone who carries a disease without being affected. This disease can be passed on.
What are female and male sex chromosomes? Chromosomes that determine a person's gender. xy chromosome-male,xx chromosome-female
How does Down Syndrome occur? An extra cell is found in each cell, resulting in 47 cells rather than 46. This is due to an extra copy of chromosome 21.
What is sickle cell anemia? An inherited disease which causes blood cells to become "sickle" shaped. These cells clog in narrow veins, stopping blood flow.
What is DNA, and how is it formed? DNA is a string of chemical bases(Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine) which instruct cell traits. The DNA builds into a double helix(spiral ladder) formation.
What rules must be followed when ATCG bases are paired? AT bases must always be paired and CG bases must always be paired.
What is a karyotype? The appearance of a chromosome in the cell nucleus.
What is selective breeding? Mating two organisms with desired traits to produce offspring with better results.
What is inbreeding? Breeding offspring with a family member that has desired traits to create a purebred result.
What is cloning? Taking the nucleus of an organism and inserting it into another cell to make an exact genetically copied result.
what is a genome? All of the DNA in one cell of an organism.
What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project? To provide an encyclopedia of mapped human DNA that can be used ti cure diseases. The human body's functions will also be shown.
Created by: 200384460