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Genetic II Test

Genetics II Test Study Guide

TermDefinition
Traits are influenced by genes and environmental factors. Explain the difference. Genes are inherited from parents but the environment affects many of your traits.
What is a carrier? Someone who is carrying the disorder.
What are the male and female sex chromosomes? Female sex chromosomes are XX, and male sex chromosomes are XY.
How does down syndrome occur? Down syndrome with occur if you have a nondisjunction on chromosome 21.
What is sickle-cell anemia? A mutated form of hemoglobin distorts the red cells into a crescent shape at low oxygen levels.
Describe DNA (including its shape and what it's made of) DNA has a double helix shape and is made of Adenine. Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.
What rules must be fallowed when ATCG bases are paired up? A is always with T and G is always with C.
What is karyotype? The number of visual appearance of the chromosome in the cell nuclei of an organism or species.
What is selective breeding? The process of selecting a few organisms with the desired traits to serve as a parent of the next generation.
What is inbreeding? Crossing two individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles.
What is cloning? Organism that is genetically identical to the organism which produced it.
What is a genome? All the DNA in one cell of an organism.
What was the purpose of the human genome project? To provide scientists with an encyclopedia of information for humans.
What is a mutation? Any change in a gene or chromosome.
What is a gene? A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
What is genetic engineering? Genes from one organism are transferred into DNA of another organism.
What is the difference in mitosis and meiosis? Meiosis has two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division while Mitosis only has one of each.
What is unique about an identical twin's DNA? Each of there DNA is the exactly the same as the others.
Created by: Liam Willson