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Genetics Study Guide

Genetics Study Guide II

Traits are influenced by genes and environmental factors, explain the difference. Genes are how your body is naturally supposed to look. Environmental factors change the way that your body is supposed to look.
Whats a carrier? Someone with a working copy and a dysfunctional copy of a gene who does not show the dysfunctional trait.
What are the male and female sex chromosomes? XX-Female XY-Male
How does down syndrome occur? There is extra genetic material from chromosome 21.
What is sickle cell anemia? A genetic disorder that causes cells to be misshapen at low oxygen levels.
Describe DNA. It is a bunch of nitrogen bases in the shape of a double helix. made of a sugar backbone,thymine,adenine,guanine, and cytosine.
What rules must be followed when ATCG bases are paired? Adenine and Thymine/Guanine and cytosine
Whats a karyotype? The number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell.
Whats selective breeding? When humans intentionally breed two organisms to bring out a desired trait.
Whats inbreeding? Breeding in one family line.
Whats cloning? Creating an organism that has the exact same DNA as the organism that it originated from.
Whats a genome? The entire set of genes in an organism.
Whats the purpose of the human genome project? The main goals of the Human Genome Project were to provide a complete and accurate sequence of the human genome.
Whats a mutation? A change in the structure of s gene.
Describe the types of mutations that can occur. Deletion-DNA is lost or taken away. Substitution- The replacement of one base for another. Insertion-Extra base pairs are put into a gene.
Whats a gene? A sequence of DNA that controls a certain trait.
What is genetic engineering? The modification of an organism by manipulating its genes.
Whats the difference between meiosis and mitosis? Meiosis creates 4 new cells and mitosis creates 2 new cells.
Whats unique about and identical twins DNA? It is exactly the same as his twins.
Created by: jdmvaawesome