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Macromolecules

carbs, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins

QuestionAnswer
CARBOHYDRATES Organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for all living things.
LIPIDS Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, steroids and waxes, made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
NUCLEIC ACIDS Organic compound made of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus. DNA and RNA are made of nucleic acids.
PROTEIN Macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. This important organic molecule is needed for cell growth and repair.
CLAP Acronym used to remember four biomolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids and Proteins.
POLYMER Large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain. Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are polymers made of many monomers.
MONOMER Simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers (Nucleotide is a monomer of DNA or RNA)
DEHYDRATION REACTION Chemical reaction where molecules combine by removing water
DISACCHARIDE Double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis or reaction.
MONOSACCHARIDE Single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
Hydrophilic Means soluble in water (Loves water)
Hydroxyl group a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which is in turn bonded to a carbon skeleton
Carbonyl group a carbon atom is linked by a DOUBLE bond to an oxygen atom, which is in turn bonded to a carbon skeleton
Carboxyl group consists of a carbon DOUBLE bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a HYDROXYL group
Amino Group a nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogens and the carbon skeleton
Phosphate Group phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms (usually ionized & attached to the carbon skeleton by ONE of its oxygen atoms)
Methyl Group consists of a carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (component of DNA-methylated compound)
Macromolecules 3 molecules that can be GIGANTIC Hint: includes carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
Alcohol This is a part of the Hydroxyl group Ethanol looks like the picture. What are the organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups called?
Aldehyde When a carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton what is it called?
Ketone When the carbonyl group is within the chain of a carbon skeleton what is it called?
Organic Phosphate often involved in energy transfers, as is the energy - rich compound ATP, what is it?
Hydrocarbons Ethane, Propane, 1-Butene, 2 Butene, Butane, Isobutane, Cyclohexane, and Benzene are all?
Created by: Hajra Maqsoos