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Biology Spring Final

Isotonic when the concentration of two liquids is the same
Hypotonic when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
Hypertonic when comparong two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
Which macromolecule determines genetic characteristics? nucleic acid
What does ATP stand for and what is it? adenosine triphosphate- one of the prinipal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, would it swell or shrink? In distilled water? Explain. it would shrink; swell. The water moves in the direction where there is more solute because that means there is more water.
What are covalent bonds? Ionic bonds? covalent- bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atomsionic- a chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges, characteristic of salts. Also called electrovalent bond.
What are the types of macromolecules? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What type of macromolecule is an enzyme? WHat type of energy does it lower and how is the helpful? protein; they lower activation energy
mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
parasitism symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives off of another organism and harms it
commensalism symbiotic re=lationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
What is a niche? How does it influence the habitats of different species of animals? a niche is a full range of physical/biologica conditions in which and organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions helps them and the environment.
In a food chain/web, what do the arrows show? arrows show the directionof energy
How do you identify a eukaryoke from a prokaryote? eukaryotes have a nuleus while prokaryotes do not have a nucleus
Where can ribosomes be found? the rough endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus
What structures maintain homeostatis in a cell? cell membrane
nucleus contains DNA/coded instructions for coordinating the cell's activity
ribosome where proteins are assembled
endoplasmic reticulm site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along whit other materials that are exported fromthe cell
golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
lysosomes "cleaning crew" break down/ store uneddeed materials/proteins
vacuoles store water and other materials
mitochondria convert chemical energy into compounds the cell can use
chloroplast convert sunlight to chemical energy
cell wall provide support/protection for plant cells (only)
cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; also provides protectionand support
centrioles helps with mitosis
What kind of transport across a cell membrane does not use energy? What type of substance can use this type of transport? diffusion; water
How does light and temperature affect photosynthesis? the more light and heat (between 0 & 35 degrees the faster the rate
How does carbon dioxide affect photosynthesis and the production of sugar? combines with 5 carbon molecules and oxygent is eventually released
when converting pyrubic acid inot lactic acid, what is required for the reaction to take place? NADH
What are the sources of energy during exercise for humans? lactic acid fermentation, respiration
What are the two processes in photosynthesis? light dependent reactions, calvin cycle
What are the three phases of respiration? glycolysis -> krebs cycle -> electron transport chain
On a pedigree, what is a cirle, square, shaded, and unshaded? circle- femalesquare- maleshaded- person has recessive traitunshaded- person has dominant trait
After meiosis, is the cell haploid or diploid? If the diploid number is 12, what is the haploid? haploid, 6
Which nucleic acids are purines? pyrimidines? purines- AGpyrimidines- CT
How do purines and pyrimidines pair? purine-pyrimidine
Which types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis? messenger, ribosomal, and transfer RNA
How many amino acids specify a codon? how many codons specify and amino acid? 3,1
What did Watson and Crick discover regarding DNA? the shaps: double helix
Arrange from largest to smallest: DNA, nucleotide, cell, nitrogen base nitrogen base, nucleotide, DNA, cell
What is crossing over? gene shuffling? co-process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of chromatids during meiosisgs- switching genes around
What is the result of mitosis? meiosis? mitosis- 2 diploid cellsmeiosis- 4 haploid cells
How many different allele combos are there for RRYY, RrYY, and RrYy? 7 (formula 2 to the power of n where n= # of heterozygotes)
What is the function of hox genes? controls which genes will produce which organs in various parts of an embryo
What is a trait determined by multiple alleles? calico cats
Coat color in cats is co-dominant, why arent there any male calico cats? because the alleles are on the x chromosome and males can only have 1 X
nondisjunction when homologous chromosomes fail to seperate
What genetic disorder is caused by nondisjunction? down's syndrome
What genetic disorders are sex-linked? Turner's syndrome and klinefelters
What genetic disorders are recessive? dominant? codominant? r- hemophiliad- huntingtonsc- sickle cell disease
describe DNA replication; what is the purpose? DNA replication is when the DNA molecule separeates into 2 strands then produces complementarey strands; each strand is a template for the new strand
describe transcription. what is the purpose? transcription is the process where part of the nucleotide is copied into a complementary sequence
descrive translation. what is the purpose? translation is the decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Where do DNA replication, transcription, and translation occur? translation-cytoplasmtranscription/replication- inside nucleus
during translation, the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide is determined by what? the codon (nitrogen base sequence)
What is an analogous structure? homologous? a- structures that appear the same but arent (bird and butterfly wings)h-structures that have different mature forms in different organisms, but develop from the sam embryonic tissue ( frog and bird leg)
how are the traits of an organism determined? alleles (genes)
what is survival of the fittest? the struggle for existence, who is able to live long enough to reproduce
what are the 4 tenets in darwin's theory of evolution? struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, natural selection, and descent with modification
what are the processes that account for variation of species? genetic variation, artificial selection
behavioral isolation when two pops have differences in rituals that prevent them from interbreeding
temporal isolation when species reproduce at different times
genetic drift random change in allele frequencies that occur in small populations
who was the 1st person to classify organisms carolus linneus
what is a gene pool? combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
what is the genus and the species of Homo sapiens homo- genussapiens= species
what are taxonomic classification levels from most to least inclusive? kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
what is a phylogenetic tree? a cladogram c- shows voluntary relationships amoung a group of organisms based on derived characters.p- based on physical characteristics
what is the main difference between lysogenic and lytic viruses? lysogenic- slowly kills host by embeading viral DNA in the hostlytic-quickly dupicates and bursts the host's cell
eubacteria and archaebacteria were once classified together as what? why were they seperated? monera; they had a different makeup of their cell walls
what is the role of bacteria in the environment? nitrogen fixation, recycling nutrients, and carrying out photosynthesis
what is mycorrhizae? what kind of relationship is it? associations of plant roots and fugi- mutualistic associations
how are fungus and fungus-like protists similar? different? similar- both obtain nutrients through cell membranes, have cell waslls with no chlorophyll, thrive on dead matterdifferent- protists dont have chitin and fungi do, and protists have centrioles in which fungi dont
mycelium many hyphae tangled together in one thick mass
what is the role of hyphae in reproduction? connect and form a zygospot which creates a sporangium that releases spores that produce new hyphae
what are some products derived of algae? sushi, ice cream, plastics
what type of protists are multicellular? red alga, green algae, brown algae, fungus-like protists and slime molds
what is the characteristic common to all protists? eukaryotic
What are characteristics of all plants? have cell walls, made of cellulose, multicellular, carry out photosynthesis
what plant parts are haploid? diploid? triploid? h- ovary, pollen grainsd- embryo, zygote, anther,everything not listed as haploid or triploidt- endosperm
what is the function of a stomata and how do they operate? open and close to release and regulate water
describe appendages of arthropods 6 appendages- insects, crabs, lobsters
give an example of a molusca snails, clams, oysters
ex of artrhropoda insects, crabs, lobsters
ex of anneliuds earthworms, leeches
ex of platyhedrons flatworms
ex of nematoda roundworm
ex of porifera sponges
ex of echinoderm starfish, sea urchins
what are the 3 embryotic germ laters endoderm, mosoderm, ectoderm
what is the function of the cerebrm and all the parts of the brain to help respond to changes in the environment
what is striation? what type of tissues are striated? striation is the alternating patterns of thick and thin filamentsfound in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue
what part of the nervous system regulates conscious control? unconscious? somatic- consciousautonomic- unconscious
what parts make up the integumentary system? skin, hair, nails
what is the function of the lymphatic systme? fight diseases
what is the function of the endocrine system? controls growth and reproduction
what is the function of the placenta? enable baby to get food and nutrients
what is the pathway of blood to the body? vena cava -> right atrium -> tricuspid valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary valve -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pumonary vein -> left atrium -> mital valve -> left ventricle ->aortic valve-> aorta
what is an open circulatory system? closed? open- no blood vesselsclosed- blood vessels
what are the different types of bone joints (and ex)? hinge (knee)ball and socket (shoulder)glide- (wrist)
Created by: onnie82