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Section 7

Notes from CRC Exam Prep Book

Why are formal assessment approaches used? to determine eligibility for services, provide diagnostic information, assist individuals with reaching career goals, evaluate effectiveness of intervention strategies, recommend course of action.
What is an assessment? any systematic method of obtaining information from tests and other sources, used to draw inferences about people, objects, or programs.
What is a test? an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior
What is a measurement? the assignment of numbers to attributes of persons according to rules stated explicitly
What is a vocational assessment? o Involves exploring a person’s strengths, weaknesses, and preferences
What can assessment procedures include? o Interviews o Standardized tests o Inventories o Observations o Job tryouts o Simulated tasks o Medical evaluations
What does an initial interview do in assessments? Generates a social-vocational history
What is the focus of an initial interview in assessments?  Determining reason for rehab services  Provide indwith necessary info about role/function of agency  Develop adequate rapport  Initiate diagnostic process  Inform of medical, vocational, or psychological evaluations that must be done.
Where is a medical evaluation required in assessments? All public state rehab agencies when working with a consumer with a physical disability or chronic illness
What is a medical evaluation used for in an assessment?  Establish the presence and extent of disability  Provide information on physical functioning  Determine types of activities precluded by disability  Identify any additional medical evaluation necessary
What does a medical evaluation provide in an assessment?  Information clarifying consumer’s general health  Information describing of the extent, stability, and prognosis – and treatment  Assessment of present and future implications
What does a psychological evaluation do in an assessment? o Yield information regarding consumers’ intelligence, aptitudes, achievement, personality, interests, and adjustment
What does a psychological evaluation help determine in an assessment?  Appropriateness of long-term vocational training  Need for adjustment services  Need to confront consumer regarding unrealistic vocational choices
What do vocational evaluation provide reliable and information to? info about vocationally relevant levels of functioning potential for behavior change/skill acquisition most effective learning style possible jobs without vocational services education or special training programs feasible jobs community supports
What is a nominal scale? classifies, assigns numerals but does not distinguish size. (any categorical variable such as ethnicity or gender)
What is an ordinal scale? indication of ordering, but no indication of distances between objects on scale (placing first, second, third)
What is an interval? equal intervals on scale (temperature)
What is a ratio? possesses a nonarbitrary zero point (weight
What are different types of reliability? test-retest, split-half, parallel forms, cronbach's alpha
what is reliability? measure of consistency
What is test retest reliability measure? measure of consistency over time
What is split-half reliability measure? measure of internal consistency. Same group, different parts of test (odds vs. evens)
What does parallel forms reliability measure? measure of consistency of scores with same group, two alternate forms of test
What does Cronbach's Alpha measure? internal consistency statistic calculated from pairwise correlations
What is validity? Extent to which meaningful and appropriate inferences can be made; does test measure what it is supposed to measure?
What are the different types of validity? face, content, criterion (predictive), construct
What does face validity measure? appraisal of test’s content based on ‘face’ of test (looking at content only)
What does content validity measure? evaluation by subject matter experts of test items’; representative of construct being measured
What does criterion validity measure? comparison of test with a related outcome measure
What does construct validity measure? extent to which the measure actually measures the theoretical construct
What is self-referenced interpretation? when a score is compared with an internal frame of reference (changes in an individual’s performance on a test over time
What is criterion reference interpretation? when a score is compared with an absolute standard
What is norm referenced interpretation? when a score is compared with scores obtained by other individuals
Whhat is a raw score? is performance on a test; meaningless without additional information
What is a standard score? can be yielded as results and be used to make norm-referenced interpretations
What is the mean and sd of a Z-score? M = 0; SD = 1
What is the mean and sd of a t-score? M= 50; SD = 10
What is the mean and sd of an IQ score? M = 100; SD = 15
What is the WAIS? Full-scale intelligent quotient & General ability Index
What are teh four indices of the WAIS? o Verbal Comprehension Index o Perceptual Reasoning Index o Working Memory Index o Processing Speed Index
What does the Standford-Binet measure and do? intelligence test that has nonverbal subtests and generates FSIQ
What is the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test-3? Untimed, easily administered, oral test of intelligence
Who is the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test-3 good for? Good for those with intellectual disabilities
What is the Slossen Intelligence test-revised 3? Easily administered, Individual, Oral test of verbal intelligence
Who is the Slossen Intelligence test-revised 3 good for? Good for those with visual impairments, reading difficulty, and physical disabilities.
What are aptitude tests? assess skills and abilities; predict how successful one will be at learning
When was the General aptitude test founded? 1947
What 8 aptitudes are tested? o General learning ability o Verbal aptitude o Numeric aptitude o Spatial aptitude o Form perception o Clerical perception o Motor coordination o Finger dexterity o Manual dexterity
What is the mean and SD of the General Aptitude Test? mean of 100 and Sd of 20
What are the three types of scores associated with the general aptitude test? Cognitive, perceptual, psychomotor scores
What are the 10 aptitudes tested in the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery? o General science o Work knowledge o Paragraph comprehension o Electronics information o Code speed o Arithmetic reasoning o Mathematics knowledge o Mechanical comprehension o Auto and shop information o Numerical operations
What is the differential aptitude tests-fifth edition form c used for? vocational and education counseling guidance?
What are the different portions of the differential aptitude tests-fifth edition form c? o Verbal reasoning o Numeric reasoning o Abstract reasoning o Perceptual speed and accuracy o Mechanical reasoning o Space relations o Spelling o Language usage
What is an achievement test? what have individuals learned
What are the three most common standardized achievement tests? • WRAT-4 • Peabody Individual Achievement Test-R • Adult Basic Learning Examination-2
What are personality tests? measure emotional, interpersonal, motivational, and attitudinal characteristics
What are the 10 clinical scales of the MMPI? o Hypochondriasis (Hs) o Depression (D) o Conversion Hysteria (Hy) o Psychopathic deviate (Pd) o Masculinity-Femininity (MF) o Paranoia (Pa) o Psychasthenia (Pt) o Schizophrenia (Sc) o Hypomania (Ma) o Social Introversion (O or Si)
What are the four scales of the myers briggs? o Extroversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) o Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N) o Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) o Judgment (J) vs. Perception (P)
What type of test is the MMPI? Personality
What type of test is the Myers'Briggs? Personality
On-job-evals (OJE assess functioning in actual work settings where they are involved in activities presumed to be compatible with interests and skills. Time period can range from a single day to a month or longer.
Supported Employment can occur after the persons has assumed the job. Used to predict what a person can do in job with supports in place.
Ecological Assessments occurs in a natural setting, such as actual worksites
Situational Assessments offer a work assessment approach where a consumer’s job performance and work behaviors are systematically observed in a realistic and controlled working environment.
What are different types of vocational tests? • Self-Directed Search • Strong Interest Inventory • Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory • Work Samples Assessment