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Bio 1100 week 4

Chromosomes & The Cell Cycle

Chromatid What chromosomes divide into during cell division.
Homologous chromosomes The cell has 2 sets of each chromosome; 1 from father and 1 from mother. These chromosomes in a homologous pair have the same genes at the same loci but possible different alleles.
Haploid cells Found in Gametes and have 1 set of chromosomes.
Diploid Cells Found in all body cells, except gametes. 2 sets of chromosomes.
Functions of Mitosis Growth and repair
Functions of Meiosis Reduction in half of the number of chromosomes during gametogenisis.
Daughter cells of Meiosis are ______ Haploid.
Daughter cells of mitosis are _____ Diploid.
ECC Gap 1 The cells primary growth phase. Normal cellular functions take place. (making proteins, getting rid of waste etc.)
ECC Gap 0 Some cells pause in G1 phase and enter a state called G0 which is a resting phase.
ECC S phase (DNA synthesis) Preparation for division begins. Every chromosome creates an exact duplicate of itself in a process called replication.
ECC Gap 2 Second period of growth and preparation for cell division.
ECC Mitosis The parent cell's nucleus, with its duplicated chromosomes divides.
ECC Cytokinesis The cytoplasm is divided into two daughter cells, each of which has a complete set of the parent cell's DNA and other cellular structures.
Mitosis Step 1 Prophase Nuclear envelope disintegrates, chromosomes condense, mitotic spindle forms.
Mitosis Step 2 Metaphase Chromosomes align on metapahase plate.
Mitosis Step 3 Anaphase The 2 sister chromatids of each chromosome part and migrate towards opposite ends of the cell as daughter chromosomes.
Mitosis Step 4 Telophase / Cytokinesis Telophase: Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear envelope reforms. Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm divides, 2 genetically-identical daughter cells form.
Kinetochore A complex of proteins associated with the centromere of a chromosome during cell division, to which the microtubules of the spindle attach.
Sister chromatids The 2 identical copies formed by the replication of a single chromosome.
Gametes A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Gametogenisis Biological process by which diploid or haploid cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
Meiosis Prophase 1 chromosomes condense, mitotic spindle forms, pairs of homologous chromosomes connect to each other, and non sister chromatids exchange DNA segments (crossing over)
Meiosis Metaphase 1 Pairs of homologous chromosomes randomly line up at metaphase plate (independent assortment)
Meiosis Anaphase 1 Each chromosome separates from its homologous, guided by the microtubules of the spindle.
Meiosis Telophase 1 / Cytokinesis 1 Chromosomes arrive at the cell poles / Two haploid cells form.
Meiosis Prophase 2 New spindle forms in each cell.
Meiosis Metaphase 2 Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate.
Meiosis Anaphase 2 The 2 sister chromatids of each chromosome part and migrate towards opposite ends of the cell as daughter chromosomes.
Meiosis Telophase 2 / Cytokinesis 2 Nuclear envelope reforms / four genetically different haploid daughter cells form.
Crossing over Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
Tetrads group set of 4.
How is sex determined in humans Individual have two copies of the sex chromosomes in every cell. Females have two copies of the X chromosomes. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.
Define meiotic non-disjunction and aneuploidy. chromatids join together abnormally when they shouldn't causing the number of chromosomes in one cell to increase.
Provide examples of genetic condition caused by an abnormal amount of chromosomes. Down syndrome.
How is sex determined in Bees, ants and wasps. Sex is determined by the number of chromosome sets an individual possesses.
How is sex determined in birds. Mother determines sex
How is sex determined in turtles. Sex is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated.
aneuploidy abnormal # of chromosomes.
If non-disjunction of a chromosome pair occurs in meiosis 2, what will be the result at the completion of Meiosis. 25% of the gametes will be n+1, 25% will be n-1, and 50% will be normal.
A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. Before mitosis begins, this cell must duplicate its genetic material. What are the products of this duplication. 92 chromatids, in 46 chromosomes.
Created by: Joeyyip13