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Science Vocab

Streak a long, thin line or mark of a different substance or color from its surroundings
Compound composed of two or more parts, elements, or ingredients
Cleavage how some minerals break along flat planes when exposed to stress
Hardness The quality or condition of being hard; the relative resistance of a mineral to scratching, as measured by the Mohs scale
Luster a gentle sheen or soft glow, especially that of a partly reflective surface
Ore a naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be profitably extracted
Rock the solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil or oceans
Mineral a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence
Weathering any of the chemical or mechanical processes by which rocks exposed to the weather undergo chemical decomposition and physical disintegration
Texture the visual and especially tactile quality of a surface
Strata a layer of material, naturally or artificially formed, often one of a number of parallel layers one upon another
Extrusive Igneous Rock relating to or denoting rock that has been extruded at the earth's surface as lava or other volcanic deposits
Intrusive Igneous Rock igneous rocks that form from crystallized magma beneath the earth's surface
Crystal a piece of a homogeneous solid substance having a natural geometrically regular form with symmetrically arranged plane faces
Crystal Formation a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions
Fracture the cracking or breaking of a hard object or material
Silicate a salt in which the anion contains both silicon and oxygen
Sedimentary Rock rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment, especially sediment transported by water (rivers, lakes, and oceans), ice ( glaciers ), and wind sedimentary rocks are often deposited in layers, and frequently contain fossils
Igneous Rock rocks formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten materials
Metamorphic Rock rock that was once one form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase
Rock Cycle an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, remelting, and further igneous intrusion
Quarry an excavation or pit, usually open to the air, from which building stone, slate, or the like, is obtained by cutting, blasting, etc
Fossil the remains or impression of a prehistoric organism preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock
Sediments any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid
Magma hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling
Lava hot molten or semifluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure
Bedrock solid rock underlying loose deposits such as soil or alluvium
Topsoil the top layer of soil
Humus the organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms
Subsoil the soil lying immediately under the surface soil
Soil Horizon a layer generally parallel to the soil crust, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath
Soil Profile a vertical section of the soil that is exposed by a soil pit
Natural Resource materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
Loam a fertile soil of clay and sand containing humus
Soil the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles
Moh's Scale a scale of hardness used in classifying minerals. It runs from 1 to 10 using a series of reference minerals, and a position on the scale depends on the ability to scratch minerals rated lower
Fossil Fuel a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
Renewable Resource a substance of economic value that can be replaced or replenished in the same or less amount of time as it takes to draw the supply down
Nonrenewable Resource a resource of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption
Conservation preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
Uplift the vertical elevation of the Earth's surface in response to natural causes
Deposition the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil
Density a measure of the quantity of some physical property (usually mass) per unit length, area, or volume (usually volume)
Composition the nature of something's ingredients or constituents; the way in which a whole or mixture is made up
Organic made of fossils
Clastic composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock
Chemical form by precipitation of minerals from water
Created by: nccs112735