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Themes in the study

Mid term review

Biology is the scientific study of life.
Properties of life include 1. Order—the highly ordered structure that typifies life,
2. Reproduction—the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind
3. Growth and development—consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA,
4. Energy processing—the use of chemical energy to power an organism’s activities and chemical reactions,
5. Regulation—an ability to control an organism’s internal environment within limits that sustain life,
6. Response to the environment—an ability to respond to environmental stimuli.
7. Evolutionary adaptation—the ability for individuals with traits best suited to their environments to pass on their traits.
Biological organization unfolds as follows: 1. Biosphere—all of the environments on Earth that support life
2. Ecosystem—all the organisms living in a particular area and the physical components with which the organisms interact,
3. Community—the entire array of organisms living in a particular ecosystem,
4. Population—all the individuals of a species living in a specific area
5. Organism—an individual living thing,
6. Organ system—several organs that cooperate in a specific function,
7. Organ—a structure that is composed of tissues,
8. Tissue—a group of similar cells that perform a specific function
9. Cell—the fundamental unit of life
10. Organelle—a membrane-enclosed structure that performs a specific function within a cell,
11. Molecule—a cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In life's biological hierarchy properties emerge at each level. Emergent properties are new properties that arise in each step upward in the hierarchy of life from the arrangement and interactions among component parts.
Cells are the structural and functional units of life. Cells are the level at which the properties of life emerge A cell can REGULATE its internal environment, TAKE IN and use energy, RESPOND to its environment, DEVELOP and maintain its complex organization, and GIVE RISE to new cells
All cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. And uses DNA as their genetic information.
There are two basic forms of cells. Prokaryotic cells, which were the first to evolve, are simpler, and are usually smaller than eukaryotic cells.
And Eukaryotic cells, which are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists and are subdivided by membranes into various functional compartments, or organelles, including a nucleus that houses the DNA.
Systems biology Systems biology is the study of a biological system and the modeling of its dynamic behavior, ranging from the functioning of the biosphere to the complex molecular machinery of an organelle.
Cells illustrate another theme in biology the correlation of structure and function. Structure is related to function at all levels of biological organization
Living organisms interact with their environments, which include Living organisms interact with their environments, which include other organisms and physical factors
In most ecosystems -plants are the producers that provide the food, -consumers eat plants and other animals, and -decomposers act as recyclers, changing complex matter into simpler chemicals that plants can absorb and use.
The dynamics of ecosystems include two major processes the recycling of chemical nutrients from the atmosphere and soil through producers, consumers, and decomposers back to the air and soil and
2 the one-way flow of energy through an ecosystem, entering as sunlight and exiting as heat.
Created by: nickea1998



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