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Unit 4: Nervous Sys

Unit 4: Nervous System

TermDefinition
Stimulus Any change in the internal or external environment that makes an organism react
Response What your body does in reaction to a stimulus
Homeostasis When everything in your body is in balance (just right)
Neuron Special cells that pass information throughout your nervous system
Dendrite Branch-like structures that receive the nerve impulse and bring it to the cell body
Axon Long, thin structure that carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body
Cell Body Main part of the neuron that contains the nucleus
Myelin Fatty substance that is wrapped around the axon to speed up the nerve impulse
Synapse Small gap between the axon tip of one neuron and the dendrite of the next neuron
Neurotransmitter Chemical that carries a nerve impulse across the synapse
Motor neuron Sends nerve impulses to muscles, causing them to move
Sensory neuron Picks up stimulus from the environment and changes it to a nerve impulse
Interneuron Carries nerve impulses from one neuron to another
Nerve Impulse Electrical and chemical message that is passed through your nervous system
Cerebrum Thinking part of your brain; controls your voluntary muscles; contains your short and long term memory
Cerebellum Controls balance, movement, and coordination
Brain stem Controls involuntary actions, such as breathing, digesting food, and circulating blood
Amygdala Regulates emotions
Hypothalamus Brain's thermostat; controls feeling hungry and full; helps regulate hormones; controls sympathetic nervous system
Thalamus Takes in sensory information
Corpus callosum Connects the two hemispheres (sides) of the brain so they can communicate with one another
Frontal Lobe Does much of the work of complex thinking, like planning, imagining, making decisions, and reasoning.
Occipital Lobe Processes light and other visual information from the eyes.
Parietal Lobe Processes messages related to touch, taste, and temperature.
Temporal Lobe Processes hearing and is involved in memory retrieval.
Central Nervous System Includes the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System All of the neurons in your body outside of the brain and spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System Controls all of the voluntary actions in your body
Autonomic Nervous System Controls all of the involuntary actions in your body
Sympathetic Nervous System Controls "fight or flight" response
Parasympathetic Nervous System Controls "rest and digest" response
Reflex When a nerve impulse does not have to pass through the brain to initiate a response
Created by: ksdsscience