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Neuro Overview

Nervous system controls all motor, sensory, autonomic, cognitive, and behavioral activities
Neuron Basic functional unit
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system includes everything else: cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic and somatic systems
True or false The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary body functions. True
Neurotransmitters Communicate messages from one neuron to another or to a specific target tissue; they can potentiate, terminate, or modulate a specific action; they can also excite or inhibit a target cell
Excitatory neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine, enkephaline/endorphin
Inhibitory neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
the brain is divided into three major parts cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum
Cerebrum consists of two hemispheres, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia
brain stem mid brain, pons, medulla, and connections for cranial nerves
cerebellum located under the cerebrum and behind the brain stem
Frontal lobes Largest, major functions include concentration, abstract thought, information storage and memory, and motor functioning
What are the frontal lobes responsible for? affect, judgement, personality, emotions, attitudes, and inhibitions, and contributes to the formation of thought processes
Broca's area critical for motor control of speech
parietal lobes primary sensory cortex; located posterior to the motor strip
what are the parietal lobes responsible for? analysis of sensory information such as pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature, and relays the interpretation of this information to the thalamus from the sensory cortex; essential in awareness of the body in space
Sterognosis the ability to perceive and object using the sense of touch as processed in this area
Temporal lobes contains auditory receptive areas located round the temples; interpretation provides integration of visual and auditory areas- most dominant role of any area of the cortex is thinking
What lobe deals with long term memory Temporal lobes
Left temporal lobe contains what area that is responsible for receptive speech Wernicke's area
Occipital lobes posterior portion of the cerebral hemisphere; primary visual cortex; assists in some visual reflexes and involuntary eye movements
Corpus Collosum thick collection of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres and transmits the information from one side of the brain to the other side
Hypothalamus anterior and inferior to the thalamus and lies next to the third ventricle
hypothalamus and endocrine system functions regulates pituitary secretion of hormones, maintain fluid balance, plays a role in appetite control, regulates sleep-wake cycle, blood pressure, aggressive and sexual behavior, emotional responses, controls and regulates the ANS, and maintains temperature
where is a common site for brain tumors in adults? pituitary gland
Pituitary gland at the base of the brain
Brainstem function reflex centers for respiration, BP, heart rate, coughing, vomiting, swallowing, and sneezing; houses cranial nerves 3,4,9,11
Cerebellum function integrates sensory information to provide smooth coordinated movement, plays and important role in motor control, contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing
indentations in the skull base fossae
Meninges function cover the brain and spinal cord, provide protection, support, nourishment
How many layers make up the meninges? 3 (PAD- pia, arachnoid, dura)
Dura mater tough, thick inelastic fibrous and grey
arachnoid middle membrane layer, extremely thin, delicate membrane resembling a spider web, no blood supply, absorb cerebrospinal fluid.
Where is the CSF located at in the brain? Subarachnoid space
pia mater the innermost membrane, thin transparent layer hugs the brain closely and extends into every fold of the brains' surface; HIGHLY VASCULAR
CSF clear colorless fluid produced in the lateral ventricles by the choroid plexus
What does CSF contain? protein, WBC, glucose, and other electrolyte levels, but NO RBCs
Cerebral Circulation receives 15% of cardiac output or 750 mL per minute
blood brain barrier formed by endothelial cells and astrocytes of the brain's capillaries; they are so tightly bound together that they form a continuous tight junction, creating a barrier to molecules and many compounds; filter to all substances entering the CSF
How can the blood brain barrier be altered? trauma, cerebral edema, and cerebral hypoxemia
Spinal cord connects the brain and periphery; 45cm long, thickness of a finger; consists of grey and white matter- grey in center surrounded by white
The cervical spine contains how many bones? 7
The thoracic spine contains how many bones? 12
The lumbar spine contains how many bones? 5
The sacrum is how many fused bones? 5
peripheral nervous system cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and autonomic nervous system
how many cranial nerves are there? 12
Sensory cranial nerves 1,2,8
motor cranial nerves 3,4,6,11,12
mixed cranial nerves 5,7,9,10
Cranial nerve 1- Olfactory (one nose) smell- frequently coffee or tobacco is what is used to test this nerve
Cranial nerve 2- Optic (two eyes) sensory, read and letters are clear, vision test, peripheral vision
Cranial nerve 3- Oculomotor motor, muscles that move the eye and lid, pupillary constriction, lens accommodation- test light reaction, look up, open eyelids
Cranial nerve 4- Trochlear motor, muscles that move the eye- H movement test
Cranial nerve 5- Trigeminal mixed, facial sensation, corneal reflex, mastication- tests include close eyes, cotton swipe to forehead, cheek, and jaw, same with sharp object, or cold and hot sensation, cotton wisp to the corneal of eye, clench jaw and move it from side to side
Cranial nerve 6- Abducens motor, muscle that move the eye, side to side eye movement tested
Cranial nerve 7- Facial mixed, facial expression and muscle movement, salivation, tearing, taste, sensation in the ear- smile, whistles, elevates eyebrows, frowns, tightly closes eyelids against resistance, sugar and salt on tongue (observe for symmetry)
Cranial nerve 8- Acoustic Vestibulocochlear/ Auditory sensory, hearing and equilibrium- tested with romberg, whisper, weber, and rinne
Why would you check the cranial nerves? annual physical, headaches, LOC decreased, brainstem pathology, presence of peripheral nervous system disease, abnormal functioning of any cranial nerve
Cranial nerve 9- Glossopharyngeal mixed, taste, sensation in pharynx and tongue, pharyngeal muscles, swallowing- gag reflex, ability to swallow, sugar and salt difference
Cranial nerve 10- Vagus mixed, muscles of the pharynx, larynx, & soft palate, sensation in external ear, pharynx, larynx, thoracic & abdominal viscera, parasympathetic innervation of thoracic & abdominal organs
Cranial nerve 10 testing gag reflex, hoarse voice, ability to swallow, say "ah" monitor for symmetrical uvula & soft palate movement
Cranial nerve 11- Spinal accessory motor, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles- shoulder shrug
Cranial nerve 12- Hypoglossal motor, movement of the tongue- stick tongue out, check tongue strength, note any deviation or tremors
Pneumonic for Cranial Nerves On Old Olympus' Towering Top, A French And German Viewed Some Hops Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Boobs Matter Most
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31 pairs- 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal
Autonomic Nervous system function regulate activities of internal organs and to maintain and restore internal homeostasis
Sympathetic Nervous system (stress) Fight of Flight response; main neurotransmitter is norepinephrine
parasympathetic nervous system (peace) controls mostly visceral functions; regulated by centers in the spinal cord, brainstem, and hypothalamus
basal ganglia function planning and coordinating motor movements and posture
Thalamus sensory function major receiving and transmitting center for afferent nerves; integrates all sensory impulses except olfactory
primary headache no organic cause
secondary headache symptoms associated with organic cause such as headache with brain tumors
seizures abnormal paroxysmal discharges in the cerebral cortex
dizziness the patient feels like THEY are spinning
vertigo the patient feels like the ROOM is spinning
Muscle strength point scale 5 point scale- 5 normal, 4 slight weakness, 3 moderate weakness, 2 severe weakness, 1 very severe weakness, 0 no movement
deep tendon reflex types biceps, triceps, brachioradialis, patellar, achilles (2+ is normal)
superficial reflexes corneal, gag, upper/lower abdominal, cremasteric, plantar, and perianal
Glasgow Coma Scale eye opening response, verbal response, motor response- max of 15, 8 or less is comatose, 3 is totally unresponsive
Created by: mlinger