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final lab

haha haah
Blood flow in kidney renal artery>segmental artery>lobar artery>interlobar artery>arcuate artery
glomerulus is where the initial filtration of water, urea and salts happens in the bowman¬タルs capsule that surrounds the glomerulus
pct is where water, salt, glucose and potassium are reabsorbed & where h+ and ammonia are secreted into filtrate
descending loop of henle is where water is reabsorbed
ascending loop of henle first passively reabsorbed salt into the filtrate & second actively secreted salt into the filtrate
dct sodium, bicarbonate and water are reabsorbed into the cortex & potassium and hydrogen are secreted into the filtrate
macula densa live and detect low water volume in the filtrate. They send message to the juxtagloberular cells to produce renin.
internal sphincter hold the neck of the bladder in place and is under involuntary control
external sphincter keeps the urine in the bladder and is under voluntary control
Renal pathway from afferent artery>glomerulus>bowmans capsule>decending loop of henle>ascending Loop of henle>distal convoluted tube>collecting duct>renal papilla>minor calyx>major calyx>the renal pelvis>ureter>bladder>urethra
keytones normal in small amounts. Excessive amounts indicate abnormal metabolic processes (excessive fat burning)
urobilinogen gives feces its brown color. Absences of urobilinogen indicates renal disease or obstruction of bile flow in the liver. Increased levels are hepatitis A cirrhosis
phosphate excess can point to a bone disorder
Turbidity clear, slightly cloudy, cloudy, opaque, or flocculent. Normally, fresh urine is clear to very slightly cloudy causes for excess material increased cells (RBC, WBC), numerous crystals, bacteria
specific gravity water starts at 1.000. urine has solutes so...1.001 to 1.030 is normal. 1.001 is very diluted
rbcs when there are rbcs it is a problem. kidney stones, infection or tumors of urinary tracts
wbcs presences means inflammation of urinary tract
casts hardened cell fragments.
haploid half the normal compliment of chromosomes. Or SEx cell chromosomes.
diploid 23 pairs of homologues chromosomes
tetrad a set of 4 chromatids
synapsis the making of a homologues pair
dyad sister chromatids
chromosome a set of chromatids holding all the genetic information for zygote.
centromere holds chromatids together
spermatogonium primitive stem cells for making sperm located at the tubule periphery (outside building in)
Primary spermatocyte destined to undergo meiosis. These cells grow towards the lumen of the tubules
Secondary spermatocyte after the first meiosis. dna doesnt replicate after this
spermatids soon to grow into sperm after spermiogenesis (or striping the extraneous cytoplasm)
lydig (interstitial) cells Outside tubules and release testosterone
sertoli (sustentacular) cells inside the cells, nuturing caring, squished, longish
acrosome helmet of sperm, has digestive enzyme that eats teh outer layer of the ovum
midpiece middle of sperm, had mitochondria used for energy
tail of sperm used to whip around for energy
oogonium egg stem cell
primary oocyte the prophase of meiosis I (growth phase)
primordial follicles 1st follicle, squamous single layer cells
primary folicle 2nd follicle when it changes to cuboidal cells, produces estrogens
secondary oocyte after the first meiosis division the daughter cells are produced. This one and another one very small called a polar body
ovum only an ovum and not a secondary oocyte when the sperm penetrates
graafian follicle where the egg is connected to the follicle at the top or any other place having a space in the follicle
antrum space between egg and inside of the outside of the graafian follicle
zona pellucida space between the egg and the granulosa cells
granulosa cells surrounds the egg in the graffian follicle
corona radiata when the egg comes out of the ovary
Embryonic stages to know Fertilization, zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, implantation, gastrulation, organogenesis
fertilization when the sperm penetrates the oocyte
zygote fertilized egg
cleavage splitting into smaller blastomeres. 2, 4, 8, 16 cell stages
morula at 32 cell stage, 3 days (rasberry)
blastula when cell empties out, 4 days
implantation when blastocyte attaches and inserts itself into the uterus
gastrulation cell layer creation with endo, meso, ecto derms. organ creation (3 weeks
organogenesis organ creation, 3.5 weeks
blastomeres cells in the cleavage stage
inner cell mass mass of cells at bottom of rasberry
trophoblast line of cells around blastocyte cavity (base of cell)
chorion interior of placenta
decidua basalis the base cells at the base of the big fingers of the placenta
decidua capsularis flat base (cap) of placenta
chorionic villi big fingers of placenta
fetal placenta the after birth placenta that comes out after milo was born
maternal placenta space or spot baby was glued into (in the uterus)
yolk sac yellow (depending on model) passes nutrients
allantois jutts off yolk sac and becomes the umbilical cord
amnion sac or lining baby lives in
amnionic fluid fluid baby lives in
umbilical cord place where nutrients get to baby
umbilical artery away from baby heart to placenta (2 ARTERIES)
umbilical vein to baby heart from placenta (1 VEIN)
endoderm stomach, intestines, heart (deep layer)
mesoderm muscles, bones (middle layer
ectoderm skin, nerves (most superficial level)
monohybrid cross between heterozygous parents
dihybrid cross between heterozygous offspring with 2 traits
gamete sex cells
genotype actual genetic make up
phenotype expression of the genotype/usually visible in some way
f1 my kids
f2 my grandkids
p1 parents (me)
homozygous when both alleles express trait same way
heterozygous when both alleles express trait differently
dominant allele with more potency and/or power
rescessive less potent allele, still present but not expressed
sex linked genes present only on x chromosome
autosome the 22 non-sex chromosomes
sex chromosome the 23rd pair of chromosome
allele gene coding on homologous pair location
Created by: deleted user



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