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Science PT I

Structure of the Earth and Igneous rocks

What are the compositional layers of the Earth? Crust Mantle Core- Outer and Inner
What are the mechanical layers of the Earth? Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Outer Core Inner Core
What is the lithosphere? -The outer part of the earth (continental and oceanic) -Made of silicon and oxygen
What is the asthenosphere? -250km thick -Just under lithosphere -Solid 'plastic' layer -Flows slowly so tectonic plates can move across
Describe the crust. -Outer layer of the Earth -Composed of light elements -> silicon and oxygen -10-75km thick (1% of Earth's volume)
Describe the mantle. -Middle layer of Earth -2,900km thick (84% of volume) -Semi-solid, clay-like rock -Slightly less silicon and oxygen, more magnesium and iron
What is the difference between the inner and outer core? -Inner core is solid, while outer molten liquid -Inner core is hotter (>5000C) while outer core cooler (>4000C) -Inner core holds pressure and weight of Earth, while outer core controls magnetic field.
Is the inner core solid or liquid? -Inner core is solid ball of iron and nickel
What is the mesosphere? -Middle layer of Earth (mechanical) -2,250km thick -Lower part of mantle -> clay-like rock
What is a rock? Naturally occurring solid mixture of either organic matter or a combination of minerals
List 4 characteristics of magma 1. Magma forms when either: rock is heated; pressure is released on a rock; or rock changes composition 2. Magma freezes between 490C and 1,750CE (approximately) 3. Magma is a mixture of many minerals 4. Magma is the first structure of an igneous rock
What words are used to describe the colour of Igneous rocks? Mafic- dark coloured rocks which are rich in iron, calcium and magnesium (low in silicon) Felsic- light coloured rocks which are rich in aluminium, potassium, silicon and sodium
What words are used to describe the crystal size of Igneous Rocks? Coarse-grained -> take cooler to cool and as a result minerals have a larger time to develop and are larger Fine- grained -> cool quickly and as a result have little to no crystals
What is an extrusive rock? -Magma in which has been erupted from the Earth's surface and cools very quickly. -Therefore, little to no crystals form
What is an intrusive rock? -Magma pushes into surrounding rock BELOW the Earth's surface -Leave a large amount of time to cool, leaving large or medium sized crystals
Name 3 extrusive rocks 1. Rhyolite 2. Basalt 3. Scoria
Name 3 intrusive rocks 1. Granite 2. Gabbro 3. Andesite
What is the main difference between extrusive and intrusive rocks? -Intrusive rocks form under the Earth's surface while extrusive rocks form above the Earth's surface -Intrusive rocks have larger crystals due to longer time to develop crystals. While extrusive rocks have little to no crystals.
Classify Granite, Gabbro, Rhyolite and Bassalt. Granite -> mafic & coarse-grained Rhyolite -> felsic & fine-grained Gabbro -> mafic & coarse-grained Basalt -> mafic & fine-grained
What is Obsidian? Classify this rock -Obsidian is a glassy rock in which cools so quickly that NO crystals form -Instead, a mafic, glassy layer of rock is formed Obsidian -> mafic & fine-grained
What is Pumice? Classify this rock -Pumice is a rock, in which when in its magma form, got dropped into water and the intense cool formed air bubbles in the magma, leaving holes through the entire rock. As a result, the rock is airy and light. -Pumice -> felsic & coarse-grained
Created by: topstudent<3
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