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A&P Respiratory Sys

Ventilation Delivery of O2 to lungs and expulsion of CO2 and H2O out.
Anterior nares Nostrils:
Apex Superior point of lung
Base Surface of lung resting on diaphragm
Hilum Region throug which the promary bronchi enter and exit
Fissures Narrow divisions separating the lungs into lobes
Cardiac impression Concavity in which the heart rests
Epiglottic cartilage Structure that moves to block the entrance to the larynx during swallowing
Factors increasing ease of breathing Decrease surface tension of the alveolar fluid. Increased compliance of the lungs. Decreased resistance of the airways.
Pulmonary capacities The relative sum of volume of tidal, residual, expiratory reserve and inspiratory reserve volumes.
Tidal volume The volume of air inhaled or exhaled with one normal breath.
Minute ventilation The tidal volume multiplied by the respiratory rate (number of breaths per minute).
Residual volume Refers to the volume of air that remains in the alveoli after a forced expiration.
Expiratory reserve volume The volume of air that can be forcefully expelled from the lungs after a normal expiration.
Inspiratory reserve volume The additional volume of air you can inspire following a normal inspiration.
Minimal volume The remaining air in the lungs after some of the residual volume has been forced out. It is only measurable after the thoracic cavity has been opened and the intrapleural and atmospheric pressures have been equalized.
Pulmonary capacities Inspiratory, functional residual, vital and total lung capacity.
Vital capacity The maximum volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after maximum inspiration and is a measure of lung function.
Surfactant A fluid that coats the interior surface of the alveoli to prevent the alveoli from collapsing. It does this by reducing the surface tension of the alveoli and increasing the compliance of the lungs. Prevents alveoli from sticking together through moist.
Interstitial fluid Allows the diffusion of the gases to occur across the respiratory membrane.
Dalton's Law Each gas in a mixture behaves as if no other gases were present.
Henry's Law The quantity of gas that will readily dissolve in a solution is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas and its solubility. Ex: gaseous drink and atmosphere.
Lower respiratory tract Has trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Functions of respiratory system Ventilation, gas exchange, blood pH, air preparation, vocalization, olfaction, protection and defense.
Vestibule Small space inside the nostrils, covered with a dense network of hair that filters air.
Middle nassal concha Also middle meatus
Soft palate Separates the oral cavity from the nasopharynx. When food is swallowed, it moves backwards to block entry to the nasal cavity so food wont enter.
Pharyngeal tonsils Protect against inhaled pathogens
Oropharynx made of Palatine, pharyngeal and lingual tonsils.
Oropharynx components Protect the body from inhaled and ingested pathogens.
Larynx Voice box.
Thyroid cartilage Also Adams' apple, houses and protects vocal folds.
Arythenoid cartilages Their movement tightens and slackens the vocal ligaments allowing us to change the pitch of our voice.
Carina To direct the air into each principal bronchi during respiration.
Bronchioles Control the resistance to airflow, and the distribution of air in the lungs.
Pitch Produced by the movement of the vocal folds.
Surfactant A fluid produced by type 2 alveolar cells that lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid and reduces the effort needed to inflate the alveoli.
Oxygen needed for The aerobic metabolic pathway of conversion of nutrients to energy requires...
Nasal Septum It is what divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides.
Vestibule contains Sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles.
Cochae Are covered by a mucus membrane that contains a large number of mucus-secreting cells and blood vessels. Also, serves as baffles to increase surface area of the nasal cavity.
Mucus glands and blood vessels functions Aid in humidifying and warming the air coming into the body.
Sinus A hollow area.
Paranasal sinuses Make the skull lighter as well as moisten and warm incoming air. They serve as resonators fro speech and sound.
Pharynx made up of Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopahrynx.
Nasopharynx Conduct air, and closes off during swallowing by raising the soft palate. Also have structures from immune system. Paired pharyngeal tonsils are in posterior of it.
Laryngopharynx Carries both air and food.
Alar cartilages Account for the many variations in nose shapes and sizes.
Created by: susysky